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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... monitoring and control of motion and position of various mechanical components with the help of mechanical limit switches, proximity sensors, and distance- and position-measuring devices. Using inputs from both flow meters and sensors, such as thermocouples and oxygen sensors, flow measurement control...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Ceramic materials serve important insulative, capacitive, conductive, resistive, sensor, electrooptic, and magnetic functions in a wide variety of electrical and electronic circuitry. This article focuses on various applications of advanced ceramics in both electric power and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... radiates out into the structure and excites a sensitive piezoelectric transducer. As the stress in the material is raised, many of these emissions are generated. Signals from one or more sensors are amplified, detected, and measured to produce data for display and interpretation. Fig. 1 Basic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... laboratory AFMs used in ambient air and liquid environments. It does not include discussion of AFMs used in ultra-high-vacuum environments or specialized AFMs used for manufacturing in the semiconductor and data-storage industries. In addition, there are several types of force sensors that are used in AFMs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... may immediately appreciate. Such an effort speaks to the increasing role of systems versus components at the disposal of the implanted medical products designer. This section highlights four systems-facing concepts that are emerging on the scene: pumps, sensors, clinical effectiveness research, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...-effect sensors, and magnetic-particle techniques), ultrasonic, acoustic emission, guided wave, laser testing, microwave, radiographic, thermal and infrared testing, x-ray diffraction, and visual inspection. Selection of the NDT method depends on product manufacturing specifications and requirements, the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., capacitive, conductive, resistive, sensor, electrooptic, and magnetic functions in a wide variety of electrical and electronic components. Perhaps the most significant development in the area of advanced ceramics has been the discovery of high-temperature superconductors. The development of structural...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... imaging. Macrophotography is commonly performed in failure analyses using a professional digital camera with a macro/micro lens. The typical magnification achievable with macrophotography is 1 to 1. Macrophotography lighting is critical because the camera is in close proximity to the component being...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... as a sensor of the working-electrode potential. Applied voltage is varied, depending on the position of the variable resistor. Fig. 10 Circuit of controlled-potential electrolysis cell for voltammetry Voltammetry involves measuring the current-voltage relationships when electroactive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006458
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... nonmagnetic metals, by means of the Lorentz magnetic force ( Ref 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ), a pulse of current through one or several wires (a coil) in proximity to a metal surface and within a magnetic field generates a pulse of elastic (ultrasonic) energy that mirrors the current pulse (the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006633
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... lateral resolution depends on the sharp tips. Binnig et al. ( Ref 1 ) overcame two key obstacles for damping external vibrations and for moving the tunneling probe in close proximity to the sample. Their instrument is called the scanning tunneling microscope. Today’s STMs can be used in the ambient...
Book Chapter

By Peter J. Blau
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... include measuring the length or thickness change of the test specimen, profiling surfaces to determine the wear depth or cross-sectional area worn away, using a precision balance to measure mass loss, measuring the relative displacement of specimens on the testing machine (in situ ) with a mounted sensor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...-ultrasonics than in other known noncontact means, such as EMATs or air-coupled transducers. Electromagnetic acoustic transducers require fairly close proximity to the part, typically on the order of 1 mm (0.04 in.) or a couple of mm, while the strong attenuation of ultrasonic waves in air strongly limits the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
.... Workpieces must be positioned positively with the degree of accuracy needed for each step of the process. Mechanized systems may need proximity devices to make certain that the workpiece is accurately located before the workpiece is moved into the coil and heated. Workpieces must be positioned properly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... enhanced with PT, MT, IR, UV, laser reference lines, video, and magnifying lenses All Thermal/infrared (IR)—includes passive thermal inspections, flash thermography, and laser flying spot/line technology Surface temperatures are imaged by point sensors, IR cameras, or coatings that change appearance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., pollutions, acid rain, and proximity to a seacoast. Designing to avoid retention of such contaminants is critical. Thus, design specifications for construction projects must include normal and extremes of environmental conditions. Design change can also include the isolation of dissimilar metals. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... reliability of the data depends on the calibration of the instrument with an SRM, the size and condition of the specimen, thermocouple proximity to the specimen, condition of the instrument, instrument settings, and many other factors. In any instrument, the measurement signal, Δ L , from the specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... these materials. ZnO is a commonly used oxide material for this application. Other common uses for semiconducting oxides include PTC (positive temperature coefficient) thermistors, capacitors with a high dielectric constant, gas sensors, and electro-optic modulators ( Ref 14 ). Copper(I) oxide has...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0