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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...Abstract Abstract The purpose of this article is to assist the reader in understanding the role that an engineering expert witness plays in evaluating incidents related to product liability, so that he or she may become better acquainted with the role that an engineer plays in such litigation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002440
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
..., property, or the environment; and as including the characteristics of things and the actions (or inactions) of individuals. One can also consider risk as a measure of the probability and severity of adverse effects. With all the products liability litigation in the United States, there has developed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003505
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and the actions (or inactions) of individuals. One can also consider risk as a measure of the probability and severity of adverse effects. With all the products liability litigation in the United States, there has developed a clear distinction among these three words for legal purposes. In this context...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... (for example, when work involves litigation), media might need to be sent to designated people. Several considerations and expectations must be addressed with the customer at the onset of the investigation, including whether the use of portable storage media or online data storage in logical pools...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
...” of the article “Products Liability and Design” in this Volume. Hazard, Risk, and Danger Considerable confusion exists about the meaning of the words “hazard,” “risk,” and “danger.” Products liability litigation in the United States has developed clear distinctions among these three words. See...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... standards for products Underwriters Laboratories standards for products Local and state building codes National electrical codes published by the NFPA National fire codes published by the NFPA ASTM International standards International Organization for Standardization standards...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the factors that promoted a failure can lead to an understanding of what is required to have a real improvement in durability of products, equipment, or structures. Understanding goes beyond knowledge of facts. Understanding requires integration of facts into the knowledge base of an individual so...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... is often substantial, and the information and opinions generated during a failure analysis could be used in mediation or litigation to determine who is going to be held financially responsible for the repair. This being the case, it is often beneficial for the failure analysis to be independent...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003523
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of reconstruction. The following are examples of codes and standards commonly referenced by personnel involved with reconstruction: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards for construction and industrial accidents American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards for products...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... improvement in durability and safety of products, equipment, or structures. Sometimes this analysis will lead to an improvement in economics as well. Understanding goes beyond knowledge of facts; it requires integration of facts into the knowledge base of an individual so that the facts may be transformed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003707
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... national product (GNP) of the respective economies. The table shows that the national costs of corrosion vary between 1.5 and 5.2%. The 1975 study by Battelle-NBS pointed out the severe corrosion impact on the U.S. economy. The estimate based on the Battelle-NBS study was that the cost of corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) provides guidelines for photographic documentation of components involved in a failure analysis that may become part of litigation. ASTM E 1188, “Standard Practice for Collection and Preservation of Information and Physical Items by a Technical Investigator...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the attention of the investigator, because they reduce production efficiency, waste critical materials, and increase costs. In some instances, they cause considerable damage or personal injury. Finally, failures can result in costly litigations. The need to develop and encourage the science (and art...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... that are considered for an acceptable level of human performance. These include the state or condition of the human being; the activity, including equipment and required tools; and the context in which the activity is performed. acceptable level equipment tools human factors human-machine systems product...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and Design , Volume 20 of the ASM Handbook , 1997. Product liability lawsuits focus on the safety aspects of design ( Ref 11 ). Some people claim that the litigation has the effect of “improving safety” ( Ref 12 ). However, others say that such lawsuits are a very expensive way of addressing safety...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... of the automobile body-in-white. automobile body-in-white cost analysis life cycle analysis material selection technical cost modeling THE SELECTION OF MATERIALS in industrial applications has always been important to product designers. This is a consequence of the fact that the selection of material...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003502
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in Design” ( Ref 14 ) and “Risk and Hazard Analysis in Design” ( Ref 15 ) in Volume 20 of the ASM Handbook . The focus of product liability lawsuits is on the safety aspects of design ( Ref 16 ). It is often claimed that the litigation has the effect of “improving safety” ( Ref 17 ). However...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... regions and estimated the global cost of corrosion was 2.5 trillion U.S. dollars, which is equivalent to 3.4% of the global gross domestic product (GDP) for 2013. The annual cost in the United States alone was estimated at 451 billion U.S. dollars, or approximately 2.7% of the U.S. GDP ( Ref 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to be conveyed when a report is prepared or when evidence is presented in court. In many cases, components have corrosion or other products on the fracture surfaces that hides surface details of the fracture. However, fracture surfaces, generally speaking, should not be cleaned until after their appearance...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., components have corrosion or other products on the fracture surfaces that hides surface details of the fracture. However, fracture surfaces, generally speaking, should not be cleaned until after their appearance with corrosion or other contaminants present has been recorded. In some cases, the contaminating...