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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract This article discusses the organization required at the outset of a failure investigation and provides a methodology with some organizational tools. It focuses on the use of problem-solving tools such as a fault tree analysis combined with critical thinking. The discussion covers nine...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... successfully used to solve practical thermomechanical processing problems. coefficient of thermal expansion density specific heat thermal conductivity thermal diffusivity thermomechanical processing thermomechanical property test THERMOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES TESTS, as covered in this article...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005208
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article begins with balance equations for mass, momentum, energy, and solute and the necessary boundary conditions for solving problems of interest in casting and solidification. The transport phenomena cover a vast range of length and time scales, from atomic dimensions up to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005450
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... energy equation for solving various problems related to fluid dynamics. fluid dynamics equation fluid mechanics continuity equation momentum equation energy equation boundary layer flow dimensional analysis fluid motion fluid statics A FLUID cannot resist shear stress by static...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... distortion from residual stresses. These problems were solved by incorporating three tie bars as shown in Fig. 13 . The center bar was removed after casting but before machining, and test coupons were produced from this bar. To maintain rigidity and eliminate machining problems, the two outside tie...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005431
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... on the mathematical principles of solving differential equations. It also reviews linear structural problems to illustrate the concept of the FEMs. partial differential equation meshed-solution method finite-element method finite-difference method boundary-element method ENGINEERING...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006246
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... Abstract This article presents ternary alloy phase diagrams to be used primarily by engineers to solve industrial problems. The diagrams presented are for stable equilibrium conditions, with the exception of metastable conditions for some diagrams involving carbon and iron. In some ternary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... specimen. This article discusses fundamentals of the technique, especially for solving materials problems. Background information is provided to help understand basic operations and principles, including instrumentation, the physics of signal generation and detection, image formation, electron diffraction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... calibration of materials for accurate measurements using XPS are provided, along with some aspects of the accuracy in quantitative analysis by XPS. In addition, the article presents examples of how XPS data can be used to solve problems with surface interactions. chemical composition X-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005993
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
...-world problems, accounting for material properties, environmental variables, boundary and state conditions, and the primary modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. The article also includes reference data and provides closed-form solutions for common heat-transfer applications...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... calculus problem of solving a coupled system of nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) for the variables of interest (e.g., velocity, pressure, and temperature) is transformed into an algebra problem of solving a large system of simultaneous linear equations for discrete unknowns that represent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005426
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... product and process design Computational fluid dynamics has as its objective the numerical solution of fluid-flow equations. The calculus problem of solving a coupled system of nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) for the variables of interest (e.g., velocity, pressure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article is a comprehensive collection of formulas, tables, and analytical solutions, addressing hundreds of heat-transfer scenarios encountered in science and engineering. It also demonstrates how to set up and solve real-world problems, while accounting for material properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., including polishing, electroplating, ceramic coatings, diffusion coatings, and shot-peening. The article presents numerous examples that identify cleaning and finishing problems and the procedures used to solve them. ceramic coatings cleaning coating diffusion coatings electroplating finishing...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Alloy phase diagrams are useful for the development, fabrication, design and control of heat treatment procedures that will produce the required mechanical, physical, and chemical properties of new alloys. They are also useful in solving problems that arise in their performance in...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... flanged areas. Fig. 9 This thin-wall steel casting required rapid pouring to fill the mold completely. Three ores obstructed the free flow of metal, creating eddies that resulted in defects. Redesign of cores as shown, had it been otherwise acceptable, would have solved the problem of metal flow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005967
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
.... Of the various thermal processing methods for steel, heat treating has the greatest overall impact on control of residual stress and on dimensional control. Among the various processes involved in heat treating, quenching is one of the most important. It is estimated that about 20% of the problems in...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...-stress models, as it can be solved with a simple mesh consisting of one row elements, as shown in Fig. 2 . Numerical predictions should match with acceptable precision using the same element type and mesh refinement planned for the real problem. For example, the solidification stress analysis code...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... the tracking of the liquid metal-gas interface. In the original VOF method presented by Hirt and Nichols ( Ref 52 ), this problem is dealt with by only solving for the momentum and mass continuity in the liquid domain. Following this solution for the velocity field, the VOF variable (the metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... cell, its phases will be close to the phases of the structure factors. An electron density map based on the heavy-atom phases and the observed structure amplitudes reveals the locations of the lighter atoms. Another way to solve the phase problem is to use a statistical approach that does not...