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probability of false alarm

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003515
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides information on life assessment strategies and conceptually illustrates the interplay of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and fracture mechanics in the damage tolerant approach. It presents information on probability of detection (POD) and probability of false alarm...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... the acceptance criteria objectives. One or more methods can be further characterized and assessed to ensure that the performance objectives, NDE performance margins, NDE costs, engineering system performance risks, and the risks of NDE system/process false alarms can be balanced in overall engineering system...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006438
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... detection of significant flaws yet not so low that noise or normal variations in the signal frequently exceed the threshold thereby increasing the probability of false alarms (PFA) ( Fig. 1 ). Realistic expectations for any NDE technique appreciates that there is some threshold of flaw size below which...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006462
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... flaw size. However, the lower signal threshold will also increase the probability of false alarms (PFA), because the signal noise (or noise plus signal from damage less than the desired damage inspection threshold D I ) could more likely exceed the lowered threshold. Thus, the POD and PFA are defined...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... that are insensitive to errors and false alarms, and this often means systems that are specific to a given inspection scenario. As an example, a guided wave inspection system for insulated piping would be quite different than one used for detecting the presence of wing icing. Similarly, microwave NDE systems...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006452
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... and probability of detection. This article lists a few field applications in various activities where phased array has shown success. The application of ultrasonic arrays to NDE has been practiced since the 1980s. Until relatively recently, array inspections have tended to emulate B-scans that could...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... , “Probability of Detection (PoD) Curves: Derivation, Applications and Limitations,” Research Report 454, prepared by Jacobi Consulting Limited for the Health and Safety Executive 2006, http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr454.pdf 6. Nondestructive Evaluation System Reliability Assessment , MIL-HDBK...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... and equipment and includes not only equipment cost but also equipment installation cost, operating cost, calibration cost, and the cost of a false positive or false negative indication. Magnetic-particle and liquid penetrant inspection equipment typically cost much less than the more elaborate, all-inclusive...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003232
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of the discontinuity, with respect to its ability to produce leakage fields. Nonrelevant indications are true patterns caused by leakage fields that do not result from the presence of flaws. The term “false indications” is sometimes used to describe this type of indication, because the indication falsely...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003232
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Discontinuities “J” and “K” would display pronounced indications, but discontinuities “P,” “Q,” and “R” would probably not be detected. Magnetiziation Methods In magnetic-particle inspection, the magnetic particles can be applied to the part while the magnetizing current is flowing and after the current...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... (“Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers”), NFPA 13 (“Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems”), NFPA 70 (“National Electric Code”), and NFPA 72 (“National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code”). Note that one cannot just pick and choose their way through NFPA standards for what to apply/not apply...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... by 1− (POD value). Other forms of detection reliability data exist, one of which is obtained by plotting the POD against the probability of a false indication. Such a plot is described as a relative operating curve, and there will be different curves for different sizes of defect ( Ref 5...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0005650
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... should be near the work area so that the injured can reach it quickly and easily. Fire alarms and fire extinguishers (CO 2 type) should be available and tested periodically. A good first aid kit and a chemical spill treatment kit should be readily available. References 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003746
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., the section may be cut at a convenient location and orientation. The most convenient position will probably depend on the type of fixture and saw available, so this may be difficult for an outside design engineer to guess. Cylindrical or rectangular sections are generally easier to clamp than tapered...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005968
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... thermocouples. It is not at all out of the question to monitor uniformity by permanently placing thermocouples in several furnace locations and automatically calculating and alarming against their average and spread. This approach has been used for years with vacuum furnaces (where uniformity is more a function...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... oil quenched. Liquid carburizing of parts that contain blind holes for which the depth exceeds twice the diameter is not recommended unless such holes can be plugged. Agitated hot water or a steam jet is probably the best solvent for salt held in recesses, crevices, and blind holes. Normally...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... section, is equal to the linear absorption coefficient divided by the number of atoms per unit volume. The cross section, usually expressed in barns (1 barn = 10 –24 cm 2 ), indicates the probability that a photon of radiation will interact with a given atom. Theoretically, there are four possible...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... 25 mm (1 in.) wide will pass over a point on the work surface in 15 s when the travel speed of the tip is 1.7 mm/s (4 in./min). This width of flame zone indicates the probability of a multirow tip, and if the heat source is as strong as assumed for computing the curves, will undoubtedly damage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006468
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... lying in any direction after only a single processing step. Special-purpose stationary units are designed for handling and inspecting large quantities of similar items. Generally, conveyors, automatic markers, and alarm systems are included in such units to expedite the handling of parts. One...