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probability density function

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Probability of detection (POD) assesses the performance of a non-destructive evaluation (NDE)-based inspection, which is a method used to determine the capability of an inspection as a function of defect type and defect size. This article provides an overview of the concept of POD, why...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract Electronic structure methods based on the density functional theory (DFT) are used as a powerful tool for assessing the mechanical thermodynamic and defect properties of metal alloys. This article presents the origins of the electronic structure methods and their strengths and...
Book Chapter

By P.S. Grant
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... process as a function of axial distance from the point of droplet atomization. The article concludes with a section on occurrence of macrosegregation and coarsening in spray cast preforms. coarsening gas atomization macrosegregation microsegregation spray casting probability density...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... furnace, and its extension being measured and compensated for the small expansion of the silica. Density is obtained quite easily as a function of temperature once the CTE as a function of temperature is known, based on conservation of mass. Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity define the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... uniform and accurately controlled furnace, and the extension is measured and compensated for the small expansion of the silica. Density is obtained quite easily as a function of temperature once the CTE as a function of temperature is known, based on conservation of mass. Thermal conductivity and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... variation of nucleation density and subsequent film growth can result in film property variations over the surface. The relative and absolute nucleation density can be determined by a number of techniques ( Ref 15 ), including: Optical density of the deposited film as a function of mass deposited...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... glass and measurement of these properties as a function of temperature. ceramics chemical analysis density measurement microstructural analysis nondestructive evaluation phase analysis proof testing strength testing methods surface area measurement thermophysical property testing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005435
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article assesses the evolution of martensite modeling in the changing materials engineering environment. It describes the physics of displacive transformations using Ginzburg-Landau theory, microstructure representation, dynamics and simulations, density functional theory, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006438
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... the ability of the component to perform its design function. The most common application is detection of flaws caused either by manufacturing anomalies, service or environmental stresses, or natural material aging. More generally, applications may include estimation of mechanical and material...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract This article begins with an overview of the fundamentals of adhesive technology, including functions, limitations, adhesive joint types, and the key factors in the selection of adhesives, including application, type of joint, process limitation, mechanical requirement, and service...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003088
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... would probably be a special order item. Further savings could be realized if the assembly were to be redesigned to allow use of 1 1 2 in. (38 mm) or 1 3 4 in. (44 mm) bolts. Functional substitution offers great opportunity for improvement and cost reduction through redesign...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... polymeric implants. The article discusses the specific problems associated with implant manufacturing processes and the consequent compromises in properties of functionally graded implants. It describes the manufacturing of the functionally-graded hip implant by using the LENS process. It reviews the four...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... 30 ) or set at some fraction of the maximum dislocation density. Alternatively, the nucleation rate can be characterized as a function of processing parameters, such as the Zener-Hollomon parameter, and strain and used as direct input to the CA simulation ( Ref 31 ). In each case, the nucleation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... results. The corrosion interaction between a metal (an electronic conductor called the electrode) and human body fluids (an ionic conductor called the electrolyte) is due to electrochemical reactions. The rates of these reactions proceeding at any part of the surface are a function...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... overall conductivity of the nanofluids. They also suggested that particles may be much closer due to Brownian motion and thus enhance coherent phonon heat flow among the particles ( Ref 43 ). The estimated mean free path and the transition speed of phonons in nanofluids through density functional theory...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... Each product requires a “system” of additives, the selection and function of which are dependent on the means by which the ceramic product will be formulated from its raw materials, shaped before densification, incorporated with other production processes, and densified. A ceramic body comprises a...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... diagram relates the density of a compact as a function of applied pressure ( Fig. 1 ). This diagram can be generated by compacting parts at different pressures and measuring the green densities obtained. Fig. 1 Typical compaction response diagram An alternative method is to make one part and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... widely available. Their availability and reliability are generally better if the temperature of interest approaches ambient and if the state of the substance in question is the most stable solid. For most solids, the constant-pressure heat capacity ( C p ) as a function of temperature is expressed by a...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003054
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... density expressed as a function of the sintering temperature and the time. Regions of dominance for the various mechanisms are indicated on the diagram, but in each case the minor mechanisms still contribute to mass flow. The main reason for sintering is to improve such compact properties as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... instances, however, where the use of cadmium plating is not essential and zinc or zinc alloy deposits could be substituted, because both give adequate anodic protection, and there was no functional purpose when cadmium was chosen in the first place. Table 10 lists analytical tests that may be applied to...