1-20 of 446 Search Results for

probability

Follow your search
Access your saved searches in your account

Would you like to receive an alert when new items match your search?
Close Modal
Sort by
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Probability of detection (POD) assesses the performance of a non-destructive evaluation (NDE)-based inspection, which is a method used to determine the capability of an inspection as a function of defect type and defect size. This article provides an overview of the concept of POD, why...
Book Chapter

By P.S. Grant
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... process that always produces a wide range of droplet diameters. The article schematically illustrates typical log-normal droplet diameter probability density distribution on a mass or volume basis obtained by gas atomization. It also illustrates the changes in solid fraction during the spray casting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... chemist or coating specialist, often using specialized laboratory equipment. The article presents examples of coating failures and defects, together with descriptions, probable causes, and suggested preventative measures. abrasion resistance coating defects coating failures preventative measures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006438
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract This article provides a discussion on general nondestructive evaluation (NDE) science and considerations for specific technique selection. It explains the basic concept of flaw detection and evaluation and probability of detection. The article provides an overview of NDE methods with...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... discussion about the concept of the probability of detection (POD), on which the statistical reliability of crack detection is based. The coverage includes the various methods of surface inspection, including visual-examination tools, scanning technology in dimensional metrology, and the common methods of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005416
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
.... Figure 6 illustrates the problem of modeling uncertainty. The practice of using the best–fit function (i.e., the most probable values of the weights) does not adequately describe the uncertainties in regions of the input space where data are sparse (region B) or where the data are particularly noisy...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
...-dimensional finite-element analysis of each component of the assembly. This analysis was used to calculate temperatures, stresses, and failure probabilities for steady-state and transient operating conditions. Figure 9 shows the transient cycle, along with the predicted reliability for each of the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003088
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... probability of leaks or breakdown to very low levels. On an automobile body, low-carbon steel with a corrosion-resistant surface treatment and coating provides corrosion resistance consistent with the anticipated lifetime of the vehicle. Thus, for these various applications, the appropriate criteria for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... of empirical rules based on extensive demonstration programs. For both economic and time reasons, there is a significant need to develop a model base for estimating NDE reliability (which is often measured in terms of the probability of flaw detection at a given confidence level). It is the purpose...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006462
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... critical size. This inspection is assumed to detect and remove any flaw of size larger than a NDE . The assumption creates the requirement to determine NDE probability of detection (POD) for this design practice. Fig. 1 Crack growth life curve for damage tolerant design The driving functions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000607
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... origin. The damage to the tooth just below the one that fractured probably resulted from jamming by a fragment from the fracture. ∼2.5× Fig. 247 Area of the fracture surface of the left-side bull gear in Fig. 245 , taken near the fatigue-crack origin. Visible are several inclusions believed to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005428
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... relevant Hamiltonian. Glauber or Kawasaki dynamics can be employed using the metropolis or symmetric probability functions. The time required to attempt a single orientation swap, whether successful or unsuccessful, is defined arbitrarily as τ, and so, 1 MCS is defined as N -attempted flips. This vanilla...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Fig. 835 , at higher magnification. Arrow marks the probable location of the crack nucleus. The surface of the grinding-relief groove is below the fracture surface. Measurements of the radius of the bottom of the groove gave values that were about 70% of the average desired and about 87% of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001246
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... resistant than ordinary iron, probably because of its higher purity. Even with better resistance, a protective coating of some kind must be applied to the deposit to prevent corrosion. An additional limitation seems to be obtaining consistent properties from one batch of parts to another. There is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000612
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... 13-8 PH stainless steel (same properties as in Fig. 726 ) loaded to 75% of tensile strength in a 3.5% NaCl solution. See also Fig. 736 . 6× Fig. 736 SEM view of crack origin area of fracture surface in Fig. 735 , showing corrosion products that probably are oxides. Secondary cracks may...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0006540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
.... number NSF National Sanitation Foundation NSST neutral salt spray test OD outside diameter OEM original equipment manufacturer OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration (U.S.) p page p probability of success; partial pressure; pressure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0005697
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... p page P applied load profile parameter Pa pascal p-c plastic-carbon (replica) PDF probability density function pH negative logarithm of hydrogen-ion activity PH precipitation hardenable P/M powder metallurgy ppb parts per billion ppm...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009002
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... on site saturation (all nuclei seeded at the beginning of the simulation) or continuous nucleation is most common. The specific sites chosen as nuclei are selected using a random number generator. For example, under continuous (constant rate N ) nucleation conditions, the overall probability of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... that dictates the probability of nucleation, P N , is governed by the equation: (Eq 1) P N = N ˙ Y d t N CA where N ˙ Y is the nucleation rate, and N CA is the number of cells in the cellular automaton, with dt the time step. The nucleation rate may...