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primary water circuits

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract This article discusses the main materials and water chemistry characteristics of the primary and secondary water circuits of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). It reviews the corrosion issues of PWR materials and the influence of corrosion and fouling on primary and secondary circuit...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... Company One modern variation of the ferrite core transformer is the use of a Litz wire primary circuit wound over the water-cooled secondary copper. The primary winding has very low resistance and losses at very high frequencies. The primary winding is indirectly cooled by the water-cooled...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003578
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... are associated with specific electrode potentials. The charged interface results in an electric field that extends into the solution and has a dramatic effect. A solution that contains water as the primary solvent is affected by the electric field near the metal because of its structure. Water is polar...
Image
Published: 01 December 1998
of the electrical circuit in which the copper coil is the primary. More
Image
Published: 01 December 2008
of the electrical circuit, in which the copper coil is the primary. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... to be the leading cause of maintenance problems. There are six sources of problems in water: pH level: Cooling circuits consist mostly of brass and copper fittings and pipe. A ph range of 6 to 8 appears to be the best range for good results. Below 6 will produce corrosion of brass, and above 8 will cause...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... directly to the welding electrodes. More complex secondary circuits are used in multiwelders. To minimize the size and cost of multiwelders, transformers can be designed with two or more secondary circuits supplied from the same primary circuit. This design is achieved by using transformers in which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005846
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... heating applications are similar to transformers with a short circuited secondary winding. The primary winding of the circuit is the induction coil and the secondary is the workpiece. For both cases, there are three closed loops: flow of current in the coil, flow of magnetic flux, and flow of current...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of the electrical circuit, with the surrounding copper coil being the primary. In a coreless furnace, the entire metal content of the crucible is the secondary. Fig. 1 Components of a coreless-type induction furnace. (a) Operational elements. (b) Cross section showing water-cooled copper induction coil...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002158
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
...), with the material characteristics of the board determining the maximum cutting speed. Waterjets mounted on X-Y tables have contouring speeds of 25 m/min (82 sfm) and an accuracy of ±0.13 mm (±0.005 in.). One concern about using a waterjet for cutting circuit boards is the introduction of water between...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... these faults are displayed for the operator to see and make adjustments to overcome. Most power supplies are manufactured with internal water cooling necessary to keep the components at the proper operating temperatures to ensure long component life. These water circuits are thermally monitored to signal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
.... Electrotechnically, an induction furnace can be thought of as a transformer. Figure 8 shows the equivalent circuit diagram. The induction coil is the primary winding , and the crucible wall isolates it from the neighboring melt, which is the short-circuited secondary coil, or winding. The coil has an effect...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... in laboratories and high-technology manufacturing processes. Service water systems are auxiliary water systems typically using “raw” or untreated water for cooling in fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. The primary corrosion challenges are related to the chemistry of the “raw” water, stagnant conditions, flow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... and hypoeutectic alloys. Alloys containing primary tin are best etched in a solution of (by volume) 1 part nitric acid (HNO 3 ), 1 part acetic acid, and 8 parts glycerol; a 5% solution of silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ) in water is most suitable for alloys containing the primary lead phase. Both etchants blacken the lead...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... that create a corrosive environment because of high operating temperatures and high water activity ( Ref 24 ). The primary corrosion reactions are the anodic oxidation of the various allotropic forms of carbon and the dissolution of platinum (probably to form complexed platinum ion, Pt 2+ , in solution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... impulses of alternating polarity is separated by “cool time.” The result is a very low frequency alternating current. Hence, the term frequency converter is commonly applied to this type of power source. Figure 8 shows a three-phase half-wave primary rectified power source. Fig. 8 Circuit diagram...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003367
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Crystal powder, viscous liquids, solid flake, solution 9–14 20–30 Radomes, multilayer high-speed printed circuit boards, solvent for thermoplastics Ortho methyl dicyanate Crystal powder, semisolid, amorphous solid 11–14 25–30 Radomes, primary structures, flexible circuitry, high-speed printed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... construction materials are required for systems using brine or caustic solutions that usually result in a higher maintenance cost. Alloy trays and fixtures of the 25Cr-12Ni or 35Ni-15Cr type can be quenched in oil quite satisfactorily but not in water, caustic solutions, or brine. Wherever possible...
Book Chapter

By Jude Mary Runge
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006523
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... of the aluminum and electrolysis of the electrolyte that continue to the cathode to complete the electrochemical circuit. Because the primary reaction produces exclusively aluminum oxide, adsorbate from the electrolyte counterion is incorporated into the top portion of the oxide, which is in contact...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... interaction. The physics of this interaction are covered fairly well in several sources ( Ref 14 , 17 , 27 , 28 ); only a short description is included here. A schematic diagram is provided in Fig. 9 . The process is driven by the primary circuit, labeled “1.” A significant amount of energy (usually...