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primary fossil fuel

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004150
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...Abstract Abstract The primary fossil fuels are generally defined as coal, oil, natural gas, tar sands, and shale oil. This article discusses the characteristics and the types of fuels used in fossil and fuel industries. It describes the energy conversion in fuels and outlines the efficiency...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... magnification: 400× Abstract Abstract Failures in boilers and other equipment taking place in power plants that use steam as the working fluid are discussed in this article. The discussion is mainly concerned with failures in Rankine cycle systems that use fossil fuels as the primary heat source...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... of construction to practical applications. The industries addressed are nuclear power, fossil and alternative fuel, land transportation, air transportation, microelectronics, chemical processing, pulp and paper, food and beverage, pharmaceutical and medical technology, petroleum and petrochemical, building...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004102
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the corrosion mechanisms, challenges, and control methods in service water distribution systems. It provides a discussion on typical designs and water qualities for distribution systems used in fossil-fueled and nuclear power plants. The article also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... involving the combustion of fossil fuels; the chemical-process industries; and certain marine applications. During the drilling and primary production of oil and gas, low-alloy steels are exposed to crude oil and gas formations containing varying amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), carbon dioxide (CO 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...% (HHV) ( Ref 29 ). Cost-effectiveness of methods to improve fossil fuel power plant efficiency Table 8 Cost-effectiveness of methods to improve fossil fuel power plant efficiency Rank Method Cost (a) 1 Reducing condenser back pressure 3.1 2 Increasing to eighth extraction point...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... refining elements and removing the reaction slag from the surface of the furnace. Emissions are substantially less using coreless induction melters than some fossil-fuel melters, such as cupolas. Induction furnaces also operate efficiently in a vacuum and are the primary power supply for vacuum melting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...Abstract Abstract Ash handling is a major challenge for utilities and industries using coal as a primary fuel. This article discusses the operating problems associated with conventional fly ash/bottom ash handling systems. It describes the two types of fly ash systems, namely, dry and wet fly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003707
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., the electrical utilities industry provided a total amount of electricity of 3.24 trillion GWh, at a cost to consumers of $218 billion. Electrical generation plants can be divided into seven generic types: fossil fuel, nuclear, hydroelectric, cogeneration, geothermal, solar, and wind. The majority of electric...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... or no indication that such asphaltic deterioration is carcinogenic or an environmental contaminant. On the other hand, there is controversy regarding the extent of environmental and carcinogenic damage caused by coal tar materials. Automotive and power plant emissions from the burning of fossil fuels also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005908
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... reduced by 10 to 15%, and the dross formation (oxidation losses) reduced by 20 to 50%. This example also demonstrates how hybrid technologies—such as heating by fossil fuel energy in combination with electroprocessing technologies—lead to an optimal process solution. Fig. 18 Electromagnetic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
..., special residual oil, or natural gas as the primary fuel. Discussion and diagrams of marine boilers can be found in several publications ( Ref 2 , 4 ). Steels, cast irons, stainless steels, and high-temperature alloys are used to construct various boiler components. Boiler construction materials conform...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... concerned with failures in Rankine-cycle systems that use fossil fuels or a nuclear reactor as the primary heat source, although many of the principles that apply to Rankine-cycle systems also apply to systems using other steam cycles or to systems using working fluids other than steam. It is important...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004156
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...Abstract Abstract The presence of certain impurities in coal and oil is responsible for the majority of fireside corrosion experienced in utility boilers. In coal, the primary impurities are sulfur, alkali metals, and chlorine. The most detrimental impurities in fuel oil are vanadium, sodium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... water systems are needed in laboratories and high-technology manufacturing processes. Service water systems are auxiliary water systems typically using “raw” or untreated water for cooling in fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. The primary corrosion challenges are related to the chemistry...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... in primary containment Reactor component Reactor type BWR PWR Containment floors, walls, ceilings … • Reactor cavity … • Bio-shield interior/exterior walls … • Fuel transfer canal exterior … • Pressurizer shield walls … • Steam generator shield walls … • Drywell...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004152
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... , Ref 14 , Ref 15 , Ref 16 , Ref 17 , Ref 18 , Ref 19 , Ref 20 , Ref 21 , Ref 22 , Ref 23 , Ref 24 , Ref 25 , Ref 26 , Ref 27 , Ref 28 , Ref 29 , Ref 30 , Ref 31 , Ref 32 , Ref 33 , Ref 34 , Ref 35 ). The root causes of many of the corrosion problems in fossil fuel boilers, nuclear...
Book Chapter

By David V. Neff
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., there are many ways that hydrogen can and will always be present in a melt to a certain degree. Fuel-fired furnaces (natural gas, oil) have hydrogen available from fossil fuel decomposition. Water vapor is almost always present in the atmosphere, even at high temperatures directly in contact with the melting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... and those that burn fossil fuels. Another significant factor is how electrolysis is controlled. Modern plants use technologies that prevent most of the anode effects responsible for the production of fluorocarbon gases, but many older plants emit four or five times as much. This shows the importance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006484
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... secondary aluminum with those of primary metal ( Ref 18 ). The most significant differences are the concentration of hydrogen and the number and chemistry of inclusions. The hydrogen content of secondary metal is higher primarily due to the use of fossil fuels to melt scrap, which creates a high-moisture...