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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...Abstract Abstract The components used in light water reactors (LWR) often remain in contact with the primary coolant, whose typical temperatures and pressures are highly aggressive, therefore, initiating corrosion in most of the alloys. This article describes the corrosion behavior of zirconium...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
...Abstract Abstract Metal is removed from the workpiece by the mechanical action of irregularly shaped abrasive grains in all grinding operations. This article discusses three primary components of grinding wheels, namely, abrasive (the cutting tool), bond (the tool holder), and porosity or air...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... ). There is a closed primary circulation loop through the reactor vessel that is maintained at high pressure (15 MPa, or 2200 psi) to prevent boiling. Superheated steam at approximately 340 °C (650 °F) is sent to a steam generator where it transfers heat to a secondary coolant loop that feeds a turbine/generator unit...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... (PWR) primary and secondary coolant chemistry conditions Table 4 Typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary and secondary coolant chemistry conditions Parameter Primary water Secondary water Pressure, MPa (psi) 14.2 (2060) 5.4–7.2 (783–1044) Temperature, °C (°F) 286–323 (547...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003424
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... contamination of the primary coolant delivery system of the machine and will also prevent severe corrosion to internal components. Solid Carbide Solid carbide cutting tools can be used; however, their life is very limited due to the abrasive nature of carbon/epoxy. Slot milling with solid carbide tools...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... diluted with water, to elevate the boiling point and depress the freeze point of the engine coolant-water solution. Ethylene glycol is the primary glycol used. When diluted to a 50 vol% solution, it will provide boiling point protection to 130 °C (265 °F) (in the cooling system, under a 0.10 mPa, or 15...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... 0 ) 0.508 (0.020) ( f r0 ) 5.31 (nominal) 2 3.20 (126) 0.559 (0.022) 5.24 3 3.58 (141) 0.508 (0.020) 5.22 4 2.57 (101) 0.406 (0.016) 7.04 (max) 5 2.90 (117) 0.610 (0.024) 5.27 6 3.86 (152) 0.457 (0.018) 5.20 (min) Summary of high-pressure coolant research...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... 10 7 (a) Assumptions in calculating total cost: (1) Radiation exposure cost; [dollar]10K/man-rem, (2) Critical path outage cost; [dollar]0.5MM/day, (3) No account taken for “present value analyses.” Source: Ref 34 Compositions of primary materials of boiling water reactors Table 3...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002192
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... with machining are due to a combination of properties, including toughness and stringiness, abrasiveness, galling, work hardening, pyrophoricity, low modulus, high density, reactivity with coolants, reactivity with tools and grinding wheels, and toxicity. These properties vary with alloy composition and heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
.../rev; depth of cut = 0.5 mm. Criteria: V b = 0.25 mm, dry. Tool: PVD-TiN coated Influence of liquid coolant and oil impregnation on flank wear Table 1 Influence of liquid coolant and oil impregnation on flank wear Material Composition Flank wear, mm Oil impregnated Cutting fluid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006494
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... the formation of short, segmented chips. Trent and Wright recommended the addition of alloying elements such as copper, which promotes and controls the formation of short, segmented chips in ductile aluminum alloys. Alloying with 5 to 20% Si increases the amount of second-phase particles (i.e., primary...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... measures were developed to mitigate the effects of the conditions that contribute to IGA/IGSCC. These include steam generator water-chemistry controls, chemical cleaning, and reduction of the primary reactor coolant system (RCS) temperature ( T hot reduction). Of these, a reduction of the primary RCS...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006577
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... core impingement. A controlled minimum pouring temperature-rate combination must be used to prevent primary silicon segregation in A390 alloy castings. Die casting of 390.0 and B390.0 is very good with excellent die soldering resistance. Application of shot-speed technology and gas venting ahead...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
.... The hazards to humans from beryllium lie in the dust and chips produced during machining and operations such as polishing that produce aerosols. Therefore, the dust and chips must be controlled, and this can be done by using a tested exhaust system when cutting the material dry or by using a coolant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of 6 m (20 ft). Hot reactor coolant from the reactor vessel enters the steam generators through a 107 cm (42 in.) inlet nozzle in the primary head. The reactor coolant flows through the U-tubes, where it gives up heat to the secondary coolant at the shell side, to the outlet side of the primary head...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003746
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...Solutions for problems encountered in abrasive cutoff sectioning Table 1 Solutions for problems encountered in abrasive cutoff sectioning Problem Possible cause Solution Burning (bluish discoloration) Overheated specimen Increase coolant rate; lessen cutting pressure...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002120
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... by decreasing cutting velocities and feed rates, reducing the size of cut, and/or increasing the coolant flow rate. Sometimes tool wear is excessive even when the recommended cutting conditions are used. The cause of the problem may be the rigidity of the machine tool and workholding fixture. An older...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002186
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... performed on magnesium. Safety measures related to machining, handling of chips and fines, and fire extinguishing are also discussed. Coolants Example 1: Form Turning AZ91B Die Castings Example 2: Broaching Internal Splines in an AZ92A Casting Planing Shaping Example 4: Counterboring...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... pressure additives are usually included, permitting their use for moderate- and heavy-duty machining and grinding applications. Typical coolant flow requirements Table 2 Typical coolant flow requirements Operation Flow at work Remarks Turning 19 L/min (5 gal/min) per tool Screw...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001484
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... in.) carbon steel with an oxyfuel process, a speed of 0.68 m/min (27 in./min) is used, but when using a 150 A PAC system with air plasma, the speed goes up to 3.81 m/min (150 in./min) ( Fig. 4 ). Because labor and overhead represent the primary costs of operating a mechanized cutting system, reducing the time...