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pressure-dependent allotropic structure

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005441
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
...Abstract Abstract This article presents a comprehensive collection of tables that list fundamental physical constants, standard atomic weights, melting points, atomic size parameters, heats of transition, thermal properties, temperature-dependent allotropic structures, pressure-dependent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... dependent on temperature and pressure; these materials are called polymorphic , or allotropic for pure elements. The most commonly used allotropic element is iron, which undergoes a series of phase transformations as a function of temperature and pressure ( Fig. 3 ). At room temperature, iron has...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
..., and it undergoes allotropic transformation to a body-centered cubic (bcc) structure at about 870 °C (1600 °F). The strong anisotropy profoundly influences the engineering properties of zirconium and its alloys and must be taken into account when selecting and processing a zirconium metal. The most common alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
..., the positions and orientations of the new grains depend on the deformed grain structure. Consequently, the recrystallization microstructure may be equivalent to the deformation microstructure but also may differ from it, depending on the temperature and time of the recrystallization anneal. Recrystallized...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... form, a phenomenon known as polymorphism. When found in elemental solids, the condition is known as allotropy. The prevailing crystal structure depends on both the temperature and external pressure. For example, at atmospheric pressure, iron is bcc at temperatures below 912 °C (1674 °F), fcc...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... exhibit strong anisotropy because of two characteristics of the metal: zirconium has a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) crystal structure at room temperature, and it undergoes allotropic transformation to a body-centered cubic (bcc) structure at about 870 °C (1600 °F). The strong anisotropy profoundly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006367
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
..., if not specified otherwise. Allotropes of Carbon Different structural forms of carbon, which is one of the most flexible in bonding configurations among all materials, have found a niche in a wide range of applications. High thermal conductivity ( Ref 2 ) and tunable electrical properties ( Ref 3 , Ref 4...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...”), depending on the conditions of state. State variables include composition, temperature, pressure, magnetic field, electrostatic field, gravitational field, and so forth. The term “phase” refers to that region of space occupied by a physically homogeneous material. However, there are two uses of the term...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... α ′ Nonequilibrium phase due to martensitic transformation; hcp structure α″ Martensite with orthorhombic structure α 2 Ti 3 Al; exists over a wide range of aluminum content; has an ordered hexagonal structure, DO 13 ω A high-pressure allotrope of titanium with hexagonal structure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001430
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... potential sources of iron contamination be avoided. Steel wire brushes should not be used for interpass cleaning of titanium weldments. Titanium is a single (α) phase material with a hcp crystal structure. However, an allotropic transformation occurs at temperatures above approximately 870 °C (1600 °F...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... thermomechanical processing (TMP) techniques. For a given titanium alloy forging shape, the pressure requirements in forging vary over a large range, depending primarily on the chemical composition of the alloy, the forging process being used, the forging strain rate, the type of forging being manufactured...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-work hardening characteristics. The surface finish of the part depends largely on the finish of the wire, which suggests the use of lightly drawn rather than annealed wire. Forming pressure increases with severity of shape, and lubrication of dies is difficult when upsetting is severe. Ferritic...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003086
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... it is frequently used, the term “property” connotes something that a material inherently possesses. More properly, a property should be regarded as the response of a material to a given set of imposed conditions (e.g., temperature and/or pressure). Material properties are the link between the basic structure...
Book Chapter

By K. Subramanian
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002152
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
...) Fig. 1 Typical hardness of abrasive materials and some work materials Diamond Diamond is an allotropic form of carbon having a cubic crystal structure ( Fig. 2 ). Diamond has been used for engraving tools and for polishing long before the 20th century. An early industrial use of natural...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... of atomic packing in closest-packed bcc plane. Atoms touch along two nonparallel close-packed directions (the cube diagonals). Source: Ref 1 Many metals exist in more than one crystalline form, depending on pressure and temperature. At one atmosphere, for example, iron is bcc at temperatures below...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Pure titanium exists in two allotropic forms as alpha (α) and beta (β) at ambient pressure and temperatures. The alpha (α) phase characterized by a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) crystalline structure is stable from room temperature to approximately 882 °C (1620 °F). The beta (β) phase in pure titanium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
...: Structural, Reinforcing, Pressure Vessel, Railway , ASTM , 1989 , p 494 , 523 6. Graville B.A. , Cold Cracking in Welds in HSLA Steels , Welding of HSLA (Microalloyed) Structural Steels , Proc. Int. Conf., American Society for Metals , Nov 1976 ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001426
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... THE REFRACTORY METALS, which include niobium (also called columbium), tantalum, molybdenum, tungsten, and rhenium, have the highest melting temperatures and lowest vapor pressures of all metals, except osmium and iridium. The refractory metals are readily degraded by oxidizing environments at moderately low...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... in formability is attributed to the hexagonal-type crystal structure of the alpha phase. The specific formability and ductility of an alloy will depend not only on crystal structure but also on the alloying elements and strength. In the preceding example, the strengths and texture were identical. In CP titanium...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003140
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... pressure vessels, optic-system support structures, prosthetic devices, and applications requiring corrosion resistance and high strength. It explains the effects of alloying elements in titanium alloys as they play an important role in controlling the microstructure and properties and describes...