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pressure vessels

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006462
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... fracture mechanics in the damage tolerant approach. It concludes with information on pressure vessel applications that can be separated into three protocols used by military nuclear power, commercial nuclear power, and non-nuclear pressure vessels and/or fired boilers. nondestructive testing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... fracture, fracture by overpressurization, inclusion effect, fatigue crack propagation, ductile fatigue striation, secondary cracking, intergranular fracture, and elevated-temperature fracture of alloy steels used in pressure vessels, steam boiler superheater tubes, and box-girder bridges. alloy steel...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... functions of an autoclave system, including pressure vessel, gas stream heating and circulation sources, gas stream pressurizing systems, vacuum systems, control systems, and loading systems. The article includes information about modified autoclaves for specialized applications and safety practices in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000606
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... fracture, brittle fracture, and in-service rotary bending fatigue fracture of fractured roof-truss angles, pressure-vessel shells, automotive axle shafts, broken keyed spindles, crane gears, blooming-mill spindles, automotive bolts, and crane wheels of these steels. axle shafts brittle fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Passivation; pickling, that is, acid descaling; electropolishing; and mechanical cleaning are important surface treatments for the successful performance of stainless steel used for piping, pressure vessels, tanks, and machined parts in a wide variety of applications. This article...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003140
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... imperfections such as α segregation, high- or low-density tramp inclusions, and unhealed ingot porosity or pipe. Currently, Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo, Ti-5Al-2Sn-2Zr-4Mo-4Cr, and Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo are some alloys used in gas turbine engine applications. Aerospace pressure vessels similarly require...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... both general- and special-purpose applications of FEA. The special-purpose applications of FEA covered are piping and pressure vessel analysis, impact analysis, and microelectronic and microelectromechanical systems analysis. The article provides case histories that involved the use of FEA in failure...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... For combined ladle furnace and vacuum degassing, arcing is carried out at the pressure created by a pollution-control device; this underpressure is ∼0.5 kPa (∼5 mbar, or 3 torr). The protective atmosphere is created under a partially closed vessel lid, leaving only the openings for three electrodes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... Abstract This article focuses on marine coatings associated with protecting commercial and military vessels. It provides detailed information on the common issues and requirements encountered when coating ballast tanks, freeboard, topside, and decks of the vessel. The article describes the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003054
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... resistance, and other properties. This article discusses the fundamentals of sintering and its effects on pore structures and particle density. It addresses some of the more common sintering methods, including solid-state, liquid-phase, and gas pressure sintering, and presents alternative processes such as...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... castings on a routine basis. Processes that include unconstrained pouring by gravity (such as most low-pressure permanent mold techniques in which the pressure vessel is filled by pouring) have problems delivering products of reliable quality. If countergravity cannot be implemented and gravity must be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... vessel to reach a certain vacuum level dictated by the process requirements. A true vacuum is devoid of all molecules or matter—a condition that does not even exist in the deepest regions of outer space. The term vacuum used in the context of heat treating more correctly describes a partial pressure...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... using such instruments as stethoscopes and microphones that have a limited ability to locate and determine the approximate size of a leak. Electronic transducers enhance detection sensitivity. A simple method used to leak test small vessels pressurized with any gas is to submerge them in a liquid...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... boilers and pressure vessels, complex welded, riveted, or bolted structures, and automotive and aerospace components. Factors influencing the fatigue life of stainless steels include temperature, specimen orientation (e.g., longitudinal versus transverse), heat treatment (e.g., annealed versus quench...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... ( Fig. 2 ). There is a closed primary circulation loop through the reactor vessel that is maintained at high pressure (15 MPa, or 2200 psi) to prevent boiling. Superheated steam at approximately 340 °C (650 °F) is sent to a steam generator where it transfers heat to a secondary coolant loop that feeds a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
...-based atmospheres, industrial gas nitrogen-base atmospheres, argon atmospheres, and hydrogen atmospheres. Atmospheres for backfilling, partial pressure operation, and quenching in vacuum are also discussed. Furnace atmospheres constitute four major groups of safety hazards in heat treating: fire...
Book Chapter

By G. Keough
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Skull melting refers to the use of furnaces with water-cooled crucibles that freeze a solid “skull” of material on the crucible wall. This article describes the basic components, operating pressure, advantages, and applications of vacuum arc and induction skull melting furnaces...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... compression for a class 20 and a class 40 gray iron. Source: Ref 15 Tensile strength is considered in selecting gray iron for parts intended for static loads in direct tension or bending. The bending strength is comparable to the tensile strength. Such parts include pressure vessels, autoclaves...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... conditions. It then focuses on the characteristics, types, and properties of the five groups of adhesives, such as structural, hot melt, pressure sensitive, water based, ultraviolet, and electron beam cured adhesives. The article also discusses the functions and applications of adhesive modifiers, including...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005672
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... material to help mend damaged vessels and for wound applications. Pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) are adhesives that provide a relatively low-strength bond upon the application of slight pressure (i.e., hand pressure). The PSAs instantly provide a degree of tackiness and build strength over time. No...