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pressure undercooling

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract High-pressure die casting is a fast method for net shape manufacturing of parts from nonferrous alloys. This article reviews the automation technologies for the different stages or steps of the process. The steps include liquid metal pouring, injection, solidification, die open, part...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005332
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., nickel, beryllium, chromium, and iron. The article discusses minor alloying additions, including antimony, bismuth, selenium, manganese, and phosphorus. Copper alloys can be cast by many processes, including sand casting, permanent mold casting, precision casting, high-pressure die casting, and low...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... Abstract This article begins with the one-component, or unary, diagram for magnesium. The diagram shows what phases are present as a function of the temperature and pressure. When two metals are mixed in the liquid state to produce a solution, the resulting alloy is called a binary alloy. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... Thermodynamics, and the Third Law of Thermodynamics. It informs that for transformations that occur at a constant temperature and pressure, the relative stability of the system is determined by its Gibbs free energy. The article describes the Gibbs free energy of a single-component unary system and the Gibbs...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... properties and specifications of test bar. It discusses the properties of gray iron, such as fatigue limit, pressure tightness, impact resistance, machinability, and dimensional stability, at both room and elevated temperature. Wear behavior of gray iron castings during sliding contact under conditions of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Gibbs free energies and atomic mobilities are established as functions of temperature, pressure, and composition and serve directly as key inputs of any microstructure modeling. The article presents examples of the integrated computation tool set in simulating microstructural evolution. Burgers...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... intermolecular interactions acting across the thin melt gap, without imposing any assumptions on the geometry of the front/particle or on the force laws. The solution requires solving a lubrication equation (with disjoining pressure effects for the intermolecular forces included as a body force) for the melt...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... crystal growth, and by solidifying cast product as rapidly as feasible. The conventional high-pressure die casting process normally solidifies product rapidly enough that artificial nuclei are not needed, but even there, added AlP 3 nuclei may offset the less-than-ideal melt temperature and melt flow...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... is its own heat sink. This occurs when the alloy is undercooled below its liquidus temperature prior to the initiation of solidification. The release of latent heat can then be absorbed by the sample itself, a process that is quite efficient but may cause a reheating (recalescence) of the sample...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... throughout the iron matrix ( Fig. 2 ). This type of graphite is found in irons that solidify with a minimum amount of undercooling, and type A is the structure desired if mechanical properties are to be optimized. Type B graphite (rosette pattern) is formed in irons of near-eutectic composition that...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... between the solidifying mush and liquid. Applying a kinetic model for the motion of this boundary then determines the growth of the grain structure. The liquid outside a grain envelope has to stay in an undercooled state until the local REV is captured by a growing envelope, or an appropriate nucleation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... boundary then determines the growth of the grain structure. The liquid outside a grain envelope has to stay in an undercooled state until the local REV is captured by a growing envelope, or an appropriate nucleation condition is fulfilled. The PF method, finally, uses the PF variable Φ( x,t ) as an...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... the number of components (elements) in the system. When the variable (degree of freedom) of pressure is eliminated by holding pressure constant, the Gibbs phase rule becomes: (Eq 1) P = C − F   ( with constant pressure ) + 1 In this case, the only variables of the system would...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... is possible under very closely controlled conditions to cool the metal far below its melting point (“undercooling”), in practice the undercooling experienced is very small. This is because commercial melts always contain some sort of nucleating agent. Most often this agent will be the wall of the...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... incorporated in aluminum matrices to make cast MMCs. There is a need to develop techniques for rapid infiltration of preforms, including techniques for rapid pressureless infiltration. Current pressureless infiltration processes take a long time, while costly tooling is required for pressure infiltration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... throughout the microstructure. Closed internal porosity can be minimized by hot isostatic pressing (HIP), using, for example, isostatic pressure of ∼105 MPa (15 ksi) applied at 1230 °C (2250 °F) for approximately 2 h within a nonoxidizing environment ( Ref 25 ). This treatment heals internal pores, resulting...
Book Chapter

By P.S. Grant
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...: Continuous gas atomization of a melt stream using high-pressure, high-flow-rate nitrogen or argon to produce a spray of 10 to 500 μm diameter alloy droplets Subsequent droplet cooling at typically 10 2 to 10 4 K/s (180 to 18,000 °F/s) and acceleration to 50 to 100 m/s (160 to 300 ft/s) under the action...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... ). Although many theories exist, no conclusions have been reached regarding possible mechanisms. The purpose of an inoculant is to increase the number of nuclei in molten iron so that eutectic solidification, specifically graphite precipitation, can begin with a minimum amount of undercooling. When...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... requirements. Today, aluminum alloy castings are produced in hundreds of compositions by all commercial casting processes, including green sand, dry sand, composite mold, plaster mold, investment casting, permanent mold, counter gravity low-pressure casting, and pressure die casting. Casting processes are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005420
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... the molten metal can erode the surface of the mold wall, especially near the in-gate. In sand molds, this can dislodge sand particles to act as another source of inclusions in the final casting. Even with permanent metal molds such as used in pressure die casting, excessive velocity against the metal...