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pressure undercooling

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
.... The article describes various undercooling methods, including kinetic undercooling, thermal undercooling, constitutional undercooling, and pressure undercooling. For solidification to occur, nuclei must form in the liquid. The article discusses the various types of nucleation: homogeneous nucleation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003724
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... the equilibrium (melting) temperature occurs. The article details five types of solidification undercooling, namely, kinetic, thermal, constitutional (solutal), curvature, and pressure undercooling. It explains the types of nucleation which occur in the melt during solidification. The effects of local...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006316
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
..., especially in the automotive industry. In this regard, thin-wall gray cast iron (TWGCI) can be seen as a potential material for the preparation of lightweight castings in automotive engineering applications. High-performance GCI is widely used for, among other things, disc brakes, flywheel and pressure plate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
.... and Kempainen M.P. , Undercooling Effects in Gas-Atomized Powders , Undercooled Alloy Phases , Collings E.W. and Koch C.C. , Ed., The Metallurgical Society of AIME , 1988 , p 269 – 285 6. Adam C.M. , Rapid Solidification Technology: The Potential for Innovative Alloy...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... pressure as repulsive force and fluid drag as attractive force; shape-preserving paraboloidal growth front; considers smooth particles and thermal conductivities of particle and melt; neglects kinetic undercooling; solute screening is considered separately Stefanescu et al. Repulsive surface energy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
...; ( r L − r γ ), liquid shell; x γ, j , x L, j , distance of point j in austenite and liquid. Source: Ref 48 Fig. 8 Fragment of iron-carbon equilibrium phase diagram. Source: Ref 48 Fig. 5 Count of eutectic cells in uninoculated cast iron as a function of undercooling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... different kinds of casting components. Some of the most common ones are sand casting, investment casting, die casting, permanent mold casting, lost foam casting, centrifugal casting, continuous casting, and direct chill casting. Each casting process has its own features. For example, for pressure die...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... − T ′ ) where Δ H f , the latent heat of fusion, is negative. Hence, in agreement with Fig. 1 , Δ G is negative. The greater the amount of undercooling (supercooling) below T f ( T f − T ′), then the greater the thermodynamic driving force for solidification. However, even when...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006334
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... the predicted and the observed ferrite contents in standard thermal cups Fig. 17 Nucleation potential evolution with holding time after inoculation Fig. 18 Undercooling that produces carbides in the standard thermal analysis cup. TEW, white eutectic temperature Fig. 19 Primary...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... silicon crystal growth, and by solidifying cast product as rapidly as feasible. The conventional high-pressure die casting process normally solidifies product rapidly enough that artificial nuclei are not needed, but even there, added AlP 3 nuclei may offset the less-than-ideal melt temperature and melt...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... with a minimum amount of undercooling, and type A is the structure desired if mechanical properties are to be optimized. Type B graphite (rosette pattern) is formed in irons of near-eutectic composition that solidify with a greater amount of undercooling than that associated with type A graphite. Type B...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... Increased penetration Ref Decreased penetration Ref Metallostatic pressure 30 Surface energy 30 Dynamic pressure 30 , 31 Metal-mold contact angle 32 Sand grain size (permeability, bulk density) 30 , 31 , 33 Sand coating 29 , 30 , 32 Pouring temperature 30 , 33...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... Characteristic Gray iron ASTM A48 Gray iron castings ASTM A74 Cast iron soil pipe and fittings ASTM A126 Gray iron castings for valves, flanges, and pipe fittings ASTM A159, SAE J431 Automotive gray iron castings ASTM A278, ASME SA278 Gray iron castings for pressure-containing parts...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... This occurs when the alloy is undercooled below its liquidus temperature prior to the initiation of solidification. The release of latent heat can then be absorbed by the sample itself, a process that is quite efficient but may cause a reheating (recalescence) of the sample. When the undercooling...
Book Chapter

By W.L. Johnson
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
...). The composition dependence of the enthalpy of mixing of various solid-solution phases (hcp, bcc, and fcc) and the undercooled liquid/amorphous phase are shown. The enthalpy of mixing of the intermetallic compounds is indicated by data points. Fig. 9 Relative change in shear sound velocity in crystalline...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
..., diagram for magnesium. The diagram shows what phases are present as a function of the temperature and pressure. When two metals are mixed in the liquid state to produce a solution, the resulting alloy is called a binary alloy. The article describes the various types of solid solutions such as interstitial...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... the undercooled melt. The solidified region containing them is called the inner equiaxed zone . Fig. 9 Basic components of a simple gating system for a horizontally parted mold Fig. 11 Schematic of the operations of the counter-gravity low-pressure casting process. (a) Investment shell mold...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... the boundary between the solidifying mush and liquid. Applying a kinetic model for the motion of this boundary then determines the growth of the grain structure. The liquid outside a grain envelope has to stay in an undercooled state until the local REV is captured by a growing envelope, or an appropriate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... a grain envelope has to stay in an undercooled state until the local REV is captured by a growing envelope, or an appropriate nucleation condition is fulfilled. The PF method, finally, uses the PF variable Φ( x,t ) as an analogue to f s , where the intermediate values 0 < Φ < 1 characterize...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003731
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... diffraction studies). Guinier-Preston (GP) zones are solute-rich clusters resulting from phase separation or precipitation within a metastable miscibility gap in the alloy system. They may form by homogeneous nucleation and grow at small undercoolings or by spinodal decomposition at large undercoolings...