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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Forging machines use a wide variety of hammers, presses, and dies to produce products with the desired shape, size, and geometry. This article discusses the major types of hammers (gravity-drop, power-drop, high speed, and open-die forging), and presses (mechanical, hydraulic, screw...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003973
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... linear motion to move the ram (see “Drive Mechanisms” in this article). The ram carries the top, or moving, die, while the bottom, or stationary, die is clamped to the die seat of the main frame. The ram stroke is shorter than that of a forging hammer or a hydraulic press. Ram speed is greatest at the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... characteristics and other operational features of hydraulic and mechanical presses are compared in Table 2 . Table 2 Comparison of characteristics of mechanical and hydraulic presses Force Capacity Stroke length Slide speed Control Preferred uses Mechanical Varies depending on slide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003974
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Table 1 Speed-range and speed-stroke behavior of forging equipment Forging machine Speed range Speed-stroke behavior ft/s m/s Hydraulic press 0.2–1.0 (a) 0.06–0.30 (a) Mechanical press 0.2–5 0.06–1.5 Screw press 2–4 0.6–1.2 Gravity-drop hammer 12–16...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract The potential for introducing defects during processing becomes greater as the relative density of pressed and sintered powder metallurgy (PM) parts increases and more multilevel parts with complex geometric shapes are produced. This article discusses the potential defects in pressed...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is used to eliminate porosity in castings. This article provides the history and an overview of the HIP system. It illustrates the reasons for using HIP and discusses the criteria for selecting HIP process parameters. The main mechanisms by which pores are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... extrusion. The article illustrates the significance of extrusion speeds and temperatures in hot extrusion. It describes the basic types of presses used in the hot extrusion of metals. The article provides information on the characterization of extruded shapes and explains the operating parameters, including...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... speed available in conventional presses has little effect on extrusion pressure. Punch speed, however, affects the extrusion process in other ways: tool heating, lubricant deterioration, and dynamic loading. Hardness of the material is representative of its flow stress, and consequently softer materials...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... pressing, cold isostatic pressing, slip casting, tape casting, roll compaction, extrusion, and injection molding. It describes the advantages, equipment and tooling, and material requirements of green machining, the machining of ceramics in an unfired state with the intent of producing parts as close to as...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., discontinuously reinforced composites and continuous-fiber-reinforced composites. Processing methods include cold pressing, sintering, hot pressing, reaction bonding, melt infiltration, directed metal oxidation, sol-gel and polymer pyrolysis, self-propagating high-temperature synthesis and joining. A table...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003112
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... isostatic pressing. Typically, pressures ranging from 310 to 415 MPa (45 to 60 ksi) are required. Generally, cold isostatic pressing of ferrous P/M parts has rather limited use because of its low production speed. This process is more commonly employed for difficult-to-process materials or for producing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... close-tolerance forgings conventional forgings friction hammers heating equipment lubrication presses shape complexity trimming CLOSED-DIE FORGING, or impression-die forging, is the shaping of hot metal completely within the walls or cavities of two dies that come together to enclose the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... aluminum alloys, press tonnage requirements are usually lower than for comparable operations on steel and higher press speeds can be used. Similarly, equipment for roll forming, spinning, stretch forming, and other forming operations on aluminum need not be so massive or rated for such heavy loading as for...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003987
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., however, is accomplished during a relatively short portion of the stroke, so that a coining load is required only during a small portion of the press cycle. Drop hammers, and knuckle-type and eccentric-driven mechanical presses are extensively used in coining. High-speed hydraulic presses also are well...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003989
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article describes the presses, transportation equipment, and manufacturing processes associated with cogging. It discusses the practical and metallurgical issues encountered during the conversion of ingot to billet. The article explains the use of numerical modeling as part of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... process. The indirect rapid tooling technologies include 3D Keltool process, hot isostatic pressing, rapid solidification process tooling, precision spray forming, and radially constricted consolidation process. 3D Keltool process direct rapid tooling forging dies hot isostatic pressing indirect...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... screws or bolts, nuts and washers, molded-in threads, self-threading screws, rivets, spring-steel fasteners, press fits, and snap fits. The article explains solvent bonding used for thermoplastic parts, and tabulates the solvent types used with various plastics. It also describes the surface preparation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003971
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... large quantities to satisfy the demand for metal products. A need arose for forging equipment with larger capacity. This need was answered with the invention of the high-speed steam hammer, in which the hammer is raised by steam power, and the hydraulic press, in which the force is supplied by hydraulic...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... continuous casting process. It provides information on castability and quality of the casted alloys. The article details postcasting treatment, including heat treatment, hot isostatic pressing, and coatings. It summarizes the applications of cast cobalt alloys. cast cobalt alloys castability coatings...
Book Chapter

By Erhard Klar
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., electrochemical, atomizing, oxide reduction, and thermal decomposition processes. It also covers the consolidation of powders by pressing and sintering, as well as by high density methods. Further emphasis is provided on the distinguishing features of powders, their manufacturing processes, compacting processes...