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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article provides a detailed account on forming operations (blanking, piercing, press-brake forming, contour rolling, deep drawing, cold forming, and hot forming) of various nonferrous metals, including aluminum alloys, beryllium, copper and its alloys, magnesium alloys, nickel...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... X X X X X X Transfer X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Flat-edge trimming X X X X X X X X Hydraulic X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Press brake X X X X X X...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003973
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... motor and controlled by means of an electrohydraulic clutch/brake system, mechanical presses have a full-eccentric type of drive shaft that imparts a constant-length stroke to a vertically operating ram ( Fig. 6 ). Various mechanisms are used to translate the rotary motion of the eccentric shaft into...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., precious metal overlays, tungsten, molybdenum, and aluminum, and composite materials. It concludes by discussing the composite manufacturing methods such as infiltration, press-sinter, press-sinter-repress process, press-sinter-extrude process, internal oxidation, and preoxidized-press-sinter-extrude...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract The potential for introducing defects during processing becomes greater as the relative density of pressed and sintered powder metallurgy (PM) parts increases and more multilevel parts with complex geometric shapes are produced. This article discusses the potential defects in pressed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Stainless steel powder metallurgy (P/M) parts represent an important and growing segment of the P/M industry. This article describes the processing, properties, and composition of medium-density and high-density P/M stainless steels. Medium-density materials are processed by pressing...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... cylinders. At the end of the upstroke, the ram is stopped and held in position by a hydraulic brake. Fig. 8 Screw press drive combining the characteristics of mechanical and screw presses. (a) Flywheel. (b) Air-operated clutch. (c) Screw. (d) Ram. (e) Lift-up cylinders This press provides a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003974
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... drive system used in most mechanical presses is based on a slider-crank mechanism that translates rotary motion into reciprocating linear motion. The eccentric shaft is connected, through a clutch and brake system, directly to the flywheel (see Fig. 9 in the article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Cold extrusion is a push-through compressive forming process with the starting material (billet/slug) at room temperature. This article provides information on the different types of steels that can be cold extruded. Mechanical presses and hydraulic presses that are specifically...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... close-tolerance forgings conventional forgings friction hammers heating equipment lubrication presses shape complexity trimming CLOSED-DIE FORGING, or impression-die forging, is the shaping of hot metal completely within the walls or cavities of two dies that come together to enclose the...
Book Chapter

By Erhard Klar
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., electrochemical, atomizing, oxide reduction, and thermal decomposition processes. It also covers the consolidation of powders by pressing and sintering, as well as by high density methods. Further emphasis is provided on the distinguishing features of powders, their manufacturing processes, compacting processes...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... steels for various methods of forming Steel 0.2% yield strength Suitability for: MPa ksi Blanking Piercing Press-brake forming Deep drawing Spinning Roll forming Coining Embossing Austenitic steels 201 380 55 B C B A-B C-D B B-C B-C 202 380 55 B B A A B-C...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.9781627081863
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003178
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... press tooling. The machines used for bending of bars include the following: devices and fixtures for manual bending, press brakes, conventional mechanical and hydraulic presses, horizontal bending machines, rotary benders, and bending presses. Shapers have also been used to perform specific bending...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., from which it inherits the fine grain size (5 to 15 μm) from the powder processing. Powder consolidation is done by vacuum hot pressing and has also been done by hot isostatic pressing or cold isostatic pressing followed by vacuum sintering. Consolidated beryllium shows only modest ductility (≤3...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... techniques are listed in Table 4 with respect to the processability of different geometries. In some cases, combinations of the main processing techniques are reasonable for manufacturing complex structures. Table 4 Processing techniques for different geometries Geometry Axial pressing, 2-D...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... punches used to apply the desired pressure. During cold compaction the powder particles mechanically interlock with each other. Typical compacted densities are 80 to 90% of the theoretical density of the material. When higher densities are required, consolidation methods such as hot pressing, extrusion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003981
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... to permit continuous movement of the workpiece to the next impression in a multiple-impression roll die. Consequently, these dies require control of rolling motion by a clutch and a brake. Steels used for roll dies do not differ greatly from those used for dies in hammer, press, and upset forging...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... casting or wire winding used in conjunction with hot isostatic pressing. Plasma spraying has also been employed to deposit a titanium matrix onto the fibers. Similarly, electron beam physical vapor deposition of metal on fiber has also been demonstrated. Table 11 gives properties for a representative...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003980
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... may also be done using solid dies in more traditional forging presses or in electric upset machines that are designed to heat the bar end as part of the upsetting operation. Electric upsetting is covered in more detail in a later section of this article...