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prepreg plies

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... performance. This article describes the optical microscopy and bright-field illumination techniques involved in analyzing ply terminations, prepreg plies, splices, and fiber orientation to provide the insight necessary for optimizing composite structure and performance. bright-field illumination...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...) Transmitted light, Hoffman modulation contrast. (D) Reflected light, bright-field illumination Fig. 2 Ultrathin section of an area of a honeycomb sandwich composite structure showing the effects of core movement during manufacturing and the resulting deformation and separation of the prepreg plies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009078
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Fig. 1 Glass fabric composite that has high void content. Void areas are due to residual solvent from the prepregging process. Bright-field illumination, 10× objective Fig. 2 Laminate made with unidirectional carbon fiber prepreg and woven carbon fabric prepreg plies. Voids are shown...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009074
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... or in an oven at slightly elevated temperature. As mentioned previously, this depends on the information that is desired and the matrix chemistry. Mounting of the sample uses the same procedure as mentioned previously, where the unstaged (and will be staged as a complete mount) or staged prepreg plies are cut...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... polymerized thermoplastics have a chance to capture volume markets since price and cycle times are competitive with the thermoset alternatives. The most straightforward way of laying up prepreg plies to gradually build up a composite is to cut the prepreg by hand and, likewise, to lay up the plies by hand...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of the continuous fiber plies to achieve the final composite. The prepreg lay-up is subjected to elevated temperature and pressure to cure and consolidate the part. The method of pressure application is dependent on the part and configuration, but the use of an autoclave is most common for high-performance parts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003408
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Fig. 7 Conveyorized multiple-ply cutting Fig. 1 Hand cutting of fabric Fig. 4 Nesting Fig. 2 Examples of cut shapes Fig. 3 Hand marking of plies Abstract Abstract This article reviews the history of prepreg and ply cutting technologies and outlines...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... guns and tacking irons certified for use on adhesives. The heat guns and tacking irons are kept in motion in small circles over the area to be tacked, at least 76 mm (3 in.) away from the adhesive surface. Prepreg plies may be removed for repositioning by using portable filtered cold- air blowers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... areas), ply terminations (i.e., ply drops), carbon fiber plies having different thicknesses, different prepreg material combinations (glass fabric prepreg and carbon fiber prepreg), and the number of plies. Bright-field illumination, 5× objective Fig. 3 Composite part made from unidirectional...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...-impregnated fiber in either uniaxial or woven form. The part fabricator requires a prepreg with tack, drape, and a certain tack life and out time. Tack is the tendency of two plies or layers to adhere sufficiently to allow laying-up of complex parts yet allow a clean strip-back if layers are applied...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003036
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... prepregs. The original concept was to prepare groups of plies in the flat and manually place them on the mold. However, the shape of the individual plies was limited by the capability of the cutters in the tape head. Therefore, recognizing a potential new market, the machine tool industry became involved...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003418
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Fig. 1 Table rolling Fig. 2 Paper cutting for angle sheet cutting Fig. 3 Automatic angle-cutting prepreg sheeter. Courtesy of Century Design Fig. 5 Tube rolling table. Courtesy of Century Design Fig. 4 Roller press with steel-rule dies. Courtesy...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... of hybridization, such as adhesive layers of film between prepreg plies, also show promise ( Ref 17 ). Fiber delivery system design is controlled by the impregnation method used. The three different impregnation methods commonly used are preimpregnated roving (prepreg), wet rerolled, and wet winding...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., and the resin content of the prepreg material used in the layup. In advanced composites, essentially all excess resin is bled from the surface of the laminate, with edge bleeding being minimized by properly damming the layup edges. Personnel should establish tables giving plies of bleeder per ply of layup...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003416
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... for reinforcements, can be applied to the dry roving at the time of winding, which is known as wet winding. They may also be applied prior to winding as a tow or tape prepreg and used promptly or refrigerated. Usually the cure of the filament-wound composite is conducted at elevated temperatures without vacuum...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... in which only warp or fill fibers have been cut. Tape prepreg is aligned parallel to the cut fibers. When multiple patterns and discontinuous plies are used in a lay-up, a certain ply may exist only at a specific rib, spar, or stringer station and not be continuous throughout the lay-up...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... adhering too soon. Hot air blowers are sometimes used locally to soften the prepreg such that it can be conformed into tight recesses. Even with a fully precut kit, the laminator has to trim plies with a blade at the component edges since, for double curvature components, each layer of prepreg is unique...
Book Chapter

By Greg Kress
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003392
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... in Fig. 6 . Low-resin-content prepregs and sandwich panels with a low number of facesheet plies are easy candidates for moisture intrusion. Moisture can also seep through open-cell foam cores. Open-cell foams, as opposed to closed-cell foams, have an interconnected network of cells, similar to a sponge...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003412
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... establish tables giving plies of bleeder per ply of lay-up for each prepreg material. These tables are often set up for a particular bleeder material, and then equivalencies are given for other materials. For instance, 1 ply of 181-style fiberglass is considered equivalent to 2.5 plies of 120-style...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... composite panels. The flat laminate test specimens represent the ablative materials used on the Space Shuttle's solid rocket motor nozzle. Flexure and compression laminates were fabricated from four prepreg plies; shear specimens, from nine. Prepreg layups were vacuum bagged and cured for 5 h at 155 °C (310...