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predicted risk

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005686
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... characterization is the process in which the dose-response assessment and exposure assessments are integrated to predict risk to specific populations. Risk characterization is the final stage in the risk assessment process and involves predicting the frequency and severity of effects in exposed populations. To...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003088
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... performance specifications. Performance specifications must reflect thorough consideration of the factors listed in Tables 2 and 3 . Consequences and risks involved in possible product failures caused by predictable misuse or overload or by imperfections in workmanship or material must be considered in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005950
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
..., applications, data sources, drawbacks, and possible resolutions, rather than on theoretical and mathematical modeling. Most of the material presented is concentrated on the simulation of the heating, blank/through, and case hardening of low-alloy steels for prediction of heat treatment defects such as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005438
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... development of an experimental procedure to produce calibration data must avoid any significant risk of invalidating the model assumptions. During the calibration, it is useful to estimate the accuracy of the model parameters, based on instrumental precision, experimental variation, and variation from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... have been implemented, NDE system/process control must be maintained to ensure a consistent level of discrimination. Shortcuts in NDE engineering, NDE procedure development, and NDE system/process control increase risks in system performance, may not reduce the risk of engineering system failure, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005416
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... as a result of uncontrolled variables. It is well understood that there is risk in using the relationship beyond the range of the fitted data, but the risk is not quantified. With neural networks, the input data x j are again multiplied by weights, but the sum of all these products forms the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... pushing metal). There is a risk of damage to the specimen surface from the exciting vibration at the welder contact point and to the specimen as a whole by acoustic fatigue. Contact damage is often mitigated through the use of a coupling/protective material, such as cardstock, between welder tip and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... test for some components may be performed on a metal part fabricated to simulate the characteristics of the ceramic component. This practice permits the evaluation of selected critical environmental situations without major risk to either the simulated ceramic component or other rig or engine parts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003989
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... advantage of placing the actuator, almost exclusively hydraulic, conveniently below ground level—a feature that substantially reduces the risk of injury from failure of high-pressure hydraulic equipment. Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of common open-die press designs Radial forging machines, also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006462
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... Companion knowledge of ongoing load history and detailed reinspections are intended to further mitigate operational risk, while extending service life. Likewise, other advances have raised challenges for nondestructive tests and their evaluation for life assessment. In aviation, the move from metallic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... (or −σ 2 ), or by a tensile stress, σ 1 . Although the nature of the deformation is the same in both cases, accomplishing that deformation in the latter case could risk fracture because it involves a tensile stress. For more general cases, Eq 1 can be rearranged to determine the following stresses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
..., specific testing has been developed to yield results that can act as indicators of the likelihood of any adversities occurring. Because the contact of any foreign body potentially presents a risk to the body, the necessary biocompatibility screening data must be on file before any clinical testing can be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... sieving and characterization to help minimize this risk of partially fused particles from previous builds affecting the powder size distributions or spreading operations. Crack formation can often be avoided by careful tuning of process parameters but can still be problematic for crack-sensitive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... reactions ( Ref 31 ). The name Nitinol is thus somewhat unfortunate in that it begins with “Ni,” which, to many, conveys the notion that it is a nickel-base alloy with all the attendant risks of releasing nickel into tissue surrounding an implant. It is, however, important to note that Nitinol is an...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... temperature at which the reduction of area falls below approximately 30 to 40%. The maximum hot-working temperature is determined from “on-cooling” data. The objective is to determine which preheat temperature provides the highest ductility over the broadest temperature range without risking permanent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., commonly referred to as the POD curve. This curve is commonly plotted as detection capability in terms of percentage of detection as a function of defect size. This curve can be used as one of multiple inputs to calculate risk of failure or other related safety factors when NDE-based inspections are used...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... mold repair paste (unless demonstrated to be free from the risk of creating bubbles) Serious oxide films, which can cause leaks and mechanical cracking, can be caused by the outgassing of sand cores through the melt, causing bubbles to rise through the metal and leaving an oxidized bubble trail...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009014
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... utilizes the material strength while also satisfying deflection requirements is readily achievable. In addition, many parts can be consolidated into one part, thereby eliminating piece part fabrication cost, assembly cost, and all the indirect costs, interfacing information, quality risk, and manufacturing...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005346
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... failure modes, and it is used to quantify the effects of the failure modes in terms of the risk they pose to the end user or the integrity of the product prior to being put to use by the end customer. When done correctly, the FMEA is one of the most valuable tools for understanding potential variation and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... electrolyte may be simply water and could be in the form of dew. The severity of corrosion of brazed joints is governed by many variables. To minimize the risk of corrosion failure of brazed assemblies, proper understanding of the base metal, braze alloy, brazing atmosphere, brazing fluxes, post-heat...