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precipitation-hardening martensitic stainless steels

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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 23 Comparison of mechanical properties of precipitation-hardening martensitic stainless steels. (a) Tensile strength. (b) Yield strength. (c) Elongation. (d) Rupture strength. Heat treating schedules were as follows. Custom 450: 1 h at 1040 °C (1900 °F), water quench; then 4 h at 480 °C More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
.... It gives some typical compositions of wrought heat-resistant stainless steels, which are grouped into ferritic, martensitic, austenitic, and precipitation-hardening (PH) grades. Quenched and tempered martensitic stainless steels are essentially martensitic and harden when air cooled from the austenitizing...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... steels, whereas the higher-carbon martensitic stainless steels are among the most difficult metals to machine. Austenitic and precipitation-hardening stainless steels vary more widely in machining characteristics within each class than do the ferritic and martensitic grades. Most easily machined...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005985
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... this action by its influence on reducing the solubility of carbon in the matrix. Thus, the tempering of the higher-alloy martensitic stainless steels can truly be considered a precipitation-hardening reaction. The higher-carbon, higher-chromium grades are typically stress-relieved only because the removal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005961
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... 15-7 Mo, AM-350, Pyromet 350, AM-355, and Pyromet 355; austenitic PH stainless steel, A-286; cast PH stainless steels; and iron-nickel PH superalloys. annealing austenitic precipitation-hardenable stainless steel heat treatment iron-base superalloys martensitic precipitation-hardenable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... examination microstructures stainless steel metallography stainless steel microstructures STAINLESS STEELS are complex alloys containing a minimum of 11% Cr plus other elements to produce ferritic, martensitic, austenitic, duplex, or precipitation-hardenable grades. Procedures used to prepare...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001412
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... Abstract This article commences with a brief description of the solidification characteristics and microstructures of martensitic precipitation hardening (PH) stainless steels. It reviews the welding parameters for types 17-4PH, 15-5PH, PH13-8 Mo, Custom 450, and Custom 455. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4F
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v4F.a0006995
EISBN: 978-1-62708-450-5
... are hardened by the precipitation of vanadium carbides. Titanium Forms TiC and TiN precipitates. Helps to refine grain structure. Used in HSLA steels. Carbide stabilizer in stainless steel Niobium Forms precipitation hardening in HSLA steels. Carbide stabilizer in stainless steels Boron On a weight...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of different types of stainless steels such as austenitic, ferritic, duplex, martensitic, and precipitation-hardening, and on the heat treatment of superalloys and refractory metals. It discusses the recommended procedures for solution annealing, austenite conditioning, transformation cooling, and age...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... chromium content to ensure the formation of a passivating layer. Stainless steels are subdivided into five major families based on the primary matrix phase: martensitic (group I), ferritic (group II), austenitic (group III), precipitation hardening (group IV), and duplex. Group I grades are martensitic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 12 September 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23A.a0006888
EISBN: 978-1-62708-392-8
..., and precipitation-hardened stainless steels. The article discusses the potential benefits of AM for biomedical devices. It describes the types of AM processes for stainless steels, namely binder jet, directed-energy deposition, and laser powder-bed fusion. The article reviews the AM of austenitic, martensitic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... Abstract Stainless steels are primarily alloys of iron and chromium. They are grouped into five families, primarily based on their microstructure: ferritic, austenitic, martensitic, duplex, and precipitation hardening. Three out of the five families of stainless steels, namely, austenitic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
..., martensitic stainless steels, ferritic stainless steels, precipitation-hardening stainless steels, and duplex stainless steels. It contains a table that lists common medical device applications for stainless steels. The article discusses the physical metallurgy and physical and mechanical properties...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003246
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... by light microscopy). The AISI type 304 austenitic weld metal contains delta ferrite, which prevents hot cracking. The 17-4 PH (precipitation-hardening) stainless steel contains delta ferrite stringers in a low-carbon martensitic matrix. The duplex stainless steel (as cast and annealed) contains austenite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... Abstract This article discusses the composition, characteristics, and properties of the five groups of wrought stainless steels: martensitic stainless steels, ferritic stainless steels, austenitic stainless steels, duplex stainless steels, and precipitation-hardening stainless steels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... to harden when cooled from high temperatures Martensitic stainless 440 … … … … Welding not recommended Ferritic stainless steels 200 (390) … … Anneal after welding 700–850 (1290–1560) Limited transformation to martensite via austenite can occur. Grain growth. Two factors reduce ductility...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... steels, as defined by the crystallographic structure. These include ferritic stainless steels, austenitic stainless steels, martensitic stainless steels, and precipitation-hardening stainless steels. The mechanism of corrosion protection for stainless steels is reviewed. The article examines the effects...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001476
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
.... Martensitic Stainless Steels Martensitic stainless steels (types 403, 410, 414, 420, and the 440 series) are weldable with adequate preheat and interpass temperature control ranging from 205 to 315 °C (400 to 600 °F). To restore mechanical properties and reduce the hardened HAZ, a postweld heat treatment...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... properties of five major stainless steel families, of which four are based on the crystallographic structure of the alloys, including martensitic, ferritic, austenitic, or duplex. The fifth is precipitation-hardenable alloys, based on the type of heat treatment used. The article further discusses the factors...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... of five major families of stainless steels: martensitic stainless steels, ferritic stainless steels, austenitic stainless steels, precipitation-hardening (PH) stainless steels, and duplex ferritic-austenitic stainless steels. Stainless steels of all types are weldable by virtually all welding processes...