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power-law breakdown

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By Sammy Tin
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... materials using expressions known as constitutive equations that relate the dependence of stress, temperature, and microstructure on deformation. The article reviews the characteristics of creep deformation and mechanisms of creep, such as power-law creep, low temperature creep, power-law breakdown...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003288
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... “Power-Law Breakdown.” Deformation-Mechanism Maps With a knowledge of the stress and temperature dependence of the creep rate for each mechanism, it is possible to construct plots showing the regimes for the various mechanisms in the stress/temperature space. These plots, which are usually called...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... of strain rate. However, above a normalized stress of about σ/ E = 10 −3 (or a normalized shear stress, τ/ G = 10 −3 ), the creep rate begins to increase more strongly with applied stress. From the perspective of power law creep, this region is described as power law breakdown and can be described...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
.... The value of the current can be expressed as (Ohm's Law): (Eq 1) I = V R (Eq 2) V = I R (Eq 3) R = ρ l A (Eq 4) ρ = R A l where R is the electrical (Ohmic) resistance of the wire, in Ω; ρ is the electrical resistivity of the wire material, in Ω · m...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... breakdown tests without actual field data to back up the results; thus, accelerated aging tests should be treated as qualitative failure predictors. Deviations from Ohm's Law Although bulk resistance, as defined by Ohm's law ( V = IR ), is the parameter most commonly used to characterize conduction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... street railways. The first documented occurrence ( Ref 1 ) in 1894 was due to a direct current (dc) powered railway installed in Richmond, VA, in 1888. In Boston, MA, during 1892, a negative cable laid between the tracks was bonded frequently to a parallel water main as the first documented attempt...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006934
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... Then, the widely used models to simulate the service life of polymers are highlighted. These include the Burgers power-law model, the Findley power-law model, the time-temperature superposition (or equivalence) principle (TTSP), and the time-stress superposition principle (TSSP). Additionally, the Larson-Miller...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... lubrication, but dents have been shown to disturb the EHD film and cause local film breakdown. The possibility of a fatigue limit for rolling contact (deviation from the inverse load power law) has been investigated. Tallian ( Ref 14 ) has analyzed test data from bearing tests run at high Λ values under...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... = η P S where η is the heat-source transfer efficiency, P is the heat-source power, and S is the heat-source travel speed. The heat input represents the amount of energy delivered per unit length of weld. It should be noted that ε, G , and R cannot be represented by single values during...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... may bring the electrode closer to the potential for passivity breakdown or even cause pitting initiation. In the body fluids, which generally are oxygenated, the oxidation power is mainly a function of the concentration of dissolved oxygen. The reaction describing the cathodic reduction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...) Deburring and radiusing. (i) Electropolishing The rate of material removal in ECM is governed by Faraday's law, since it is a function of current. The primary variables that affect the current density and the material removal rate are: Voltage Feed rate Electrolyte conductivity...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... Abstract This article describes the various characteristics of electrochemical grinding (ECG). It discusses grinding methods that can be performed with ECG components, namely, the electrolyte delivery and circulating system, the electrolyte, the DC power supply, grinding wheel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Schematic drawing of a plasma carburizing furnace. Courtesy of IPSEN International For the plasma process, the gases methane, hydrogen, and argon should be provided. If carbonitriding processes are planned, nitrogen should be held available. With the addition of propane and acetylene, plasma-powered...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005905
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... engineering with 16,000 kW/250 Hz connected power ( Ref 5 ). Melting large, collected returns is the basis for economic melting operations of this unit, the largest induction furnace in a steel foundry to date (2013). Fig. 1 A 38 ton 16 MW/250 Hz induction crucible furnace before tapping in a steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... and liquid hydrocarbons) Fuel cells also offer the ability to hybridize with gas turbines as well as the potential to develop near-zero-emissions power plants and to capture greenhouse gas from the exhaust, ultimately leading to a hydrogen economy and infrastructure. At present, widespread use of fuel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... is both an old and a new subject. It is old, because some of the original work in both laser and electron beam welding was done with relatively low-power systems, and hence, the welds made were small. It is new in that the progress of miniaturization in industry has made the desire to make microjoints...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article focuses on the life assessment methods for elevated-temperature failure mechanisms and metallurgical instabilities that reduce life or cause loss of function or operating time of high-temperature components, namely, gas turbine blade, and power plant piping and tubing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
.... With environmental laws requiring more elaborate pollution-control equipment, the cupola lost much of its advantage of low cost and simplicity, especially on small cupolas. Cupola designs have changed dramatically during the past 50 years. During the 1960s, cupolas used refractory-lined shells with no water...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002160
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... machines have manual voltage and feed rate controls, while more advanced machines have computer numerical control (CNC) of the machine axes and process parameters. Most machines control feed rate and voltage. Power Supplies Power supplies are equipped with devices for monitoring amperage, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... diffracting power as well as the prevailing overall diffraction conditions. Local diffracting power is affected by the distorted regions surrounding an imperfection, leading to differences in intensities between these regions and the surrounding more-perfect regions. This intensity variation gives rise...