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powder-bed fusion

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
...- and water-atomized laser-powder bed fusion (LPBF) parts at various energy densities. The results from the study showed the strong dependence of densification, mechanical properties, and microstructures on temperature, pressure, and time during the HIP cycle. The density, ultimate tensile strength, hardness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
...Powder bed fusion polymer thermal and mechanical properties Table 1 Powder bed fusion polymer thermal and mechanical properties Material/formula Product description Elastic modulus Tensile strength Elongation at break, % Melting point Deflection temperature at 0.46 MPa (0.07 ksi...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
...Mechanical properties and characteristics of powder bed fusion processed ceramics Table 1 Mechanical properties and characteristics of powder bed fusion processed ceramics Material Relative density, % Strength, MPa (ksi) Roughness, μm Reference SiO 2 … 6–16 (0.9–2.3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... Conference Fig. 13 Schematic of coaxial probe laser that is triangulated to calculate the distance from deposition head to melt pool surface. Adapted from Ref 25 Fig. 2 Optical camera and flash lamps are installed in a standard laser powder-bed fusion system. Proximity sensors are used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006576
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... powder bed fusion, electron powder bed fusion, blown powder directed energy deposition, and binder jet AM. The discussion includes process overview and covers the mechanism, advantages, and applications of each of these techniques. References References 1. Specification S. , “ Standard...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... alloys. The AM processes include binder jetting, ultrasonic additive manufacturing, directed-energy deposition, laser powder-bed fusion, and electron beam powder-bed fusion. The article presents a review of the literature and state of the art for copper alloy AM and features data on AM processes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... of these sources is discussed, with an emphasis on their principles of operation, key processing variables, and the influence of each source on the transfer of heat and material. Common energy sources used for metals AM processes, particularly powder-bed fusion and directed-energy deposition, are also discussed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... bed fusion, binder jetting, and direct energy deposition. The discussion provides information on powder removal, powder recycling and conditioning, part removal, and part enhancement. The mechanism, applications, advantages, and limitations of mechanical, radiation, and chemical-finishing processes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006575
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... distortion results for the experimental build in the x - z plane. Source: Ref 15 Fig. 15 Experimental setup for in situ temperature and distortion measurement during laser powder-bed fusion processing of Inconel 718. Source: Ref 26 Fig. 16 Comparison of predicted temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006581
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
.... This article discusses various additive manufacturing (AM) technologies for processing titanium and its alloys. These include directed-energy deposition (DED), powder-bed fusion (PBF), and sheet lamination. The discussion covers the effect of AM on the microstructures of the materials deposited, static...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
...) Fig. 11 Schematic of powder bed fusion Fig. 12 Powder bed fusion part, nylon. Courtesy of 3D Systems Fig. 13 Schematic of directed energy deposition Fig. 14 Representative directed energy deposition parts. (a) Pure copper septagon structure 175 mm in diameter and 200 mm...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
..., providing information on lumped-parameter material flow models and higher-fidelity models developed to estimate temperature distribution. The second section covers polymer powder-bed sintering/ fusion, discussing the different levels of scale used to address modeling and the impact of process settings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... isotropic grain structure. Source: Ref 37 Fig. 5 Microstructure of laser powder bed fusion build showing distinct nonisotropic weld patterns. Source: Ref 37 Fig. 1 Binder-jet process cycle. Top left image from Ref 27 . Other images adapted from Ref 28 . Fig. 6 Highly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... 90 47,713 24.1 66.9 45–50 1 10 100 65,450 33.1 100.0 Note: Both the probability density function and cumulative distribution function representations are given. Commonly encountered sieve sizes used in powder-bed fusion and directed-energy deposition additive manufacturing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... Fig. 9 Housholder powder-bed fusion. Source: Ref 30 Fig. 10 Early part produced by Housholder (powder-bed fusion), ~1979. Source: Ref 31 , 32 Fig. 11 Kodama’s 1981arrangements for vat polymerization. (a) Mask top-down arrangement. (b) Mask bottom-up arrangement. (c) Gantry...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... Fig. 1 Examples of powder-spreading anomalies observed during printing in a laser powder-bed fusion printer. Source: Ref 2 Fig. 2 Ishikawa diagram with influencing parameters for metal powders. AM, additive manufacturing. Source: Ref 4 Fig. 3 ASTM International B 213...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... Representative hot isostatic pressing furnace consisting of a furnace base with heaters and the insulating thermal barrier with heaters. Courtesy of Quintus Technologies Fig. 6 Fatigue data for Ti-6Al-4V produced by using electron beam powder-bed fusion in different variants. HIP, hot isostatic pressed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/ir/2014/NIST.IR.8005.pdf (accessed Jan. 29, 2018) 6. Jacob G. , Brown C.U. , Donmez M.A. , and Watson S.S. , Effects of Powder Recycling on Stainless Steel Powder and Built Material Properties in Metal Powder Bed Fusion Processes , NIST Advanced Manufacturing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006557
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... gas stream sweeps away any gaseous species that surface. Source: Ref 37 Fig. 2 Dynamic x-ray images of a laser powder-bed fusion process for Ti-6Al-4V, where a keyhole pore is formed upon increasing the laser power used for processing. Scale bars are 200 μm. Source: Ref 19 Fig. 4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... micrographs (a), (b), (c) from cross section of laser powder bed fusion build. Scanning electron micrographs from surface of printed Co-Cr-Mo alloy samples with build directions of (d) 0, (e) 45, and (f) 90°. Schematic showing the relationship of grain orientation and molten pool boundaries dependent on build...