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powder-bed fusion

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... Abstract Powder bed fusion (PBF) of polymers is a collection of additive manufacturing processes that melt and fuse polymer in a powder bed. This article provides a complete suite of materials and processes involved in PBF of polymers. The discussion includes details of thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... Abstract This article focuses on powder bed fusion (PBF) of ceramics, which has the potential to fabricate functional ceramic parts directly without any binders or post-sintering steps. It presents the results of three oxide ceramic materials, namely silica, zirconia, and alumina, processed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... Abstract This article covers in-line process monitoring of the metal additive manufacturing (AM) methods of laser and electron beam (e-beam) powder-bed fusion (PBF) and directed-energy deposition (DED). It focuses on methods that monitor the component directly throughout the build process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
...-atomized laser-powder bed fusion (LPBF) parts at various energy densities. The results from the study showed the strong dependence of densification, mechanical properties, and microstructures on temperature, pressure, and time during the HIP cycle. The density, ultimate tensile strength, hardness and yield...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 12 September 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23A.a0006859
EISBN: 978-1-62708-392-8
... Abstract Powder-bed fusion (PBF) is a group of additive manufacturing (AM) processes that includes selective laser sintering, selective laser melting, and electron beam melting. This article explains the processes and parameters of PBF systems that are used for biomedical applications. It also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 12 September 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23A.a0006883
EISBN: 978-1-62708-392-8
... Abstract According to International Organization for Standardization (ISO)/ASTM International 52900, additive manufacturing (AM) can be classified into material extrusion, material jetting, vat photo polymerization, binder jetting, sheet lamination, powder-bed fusion (PBF), and directed-energy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006985
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... of the common defects that occur in laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) components, mitigation strategies, and their impact on fatigue failure. It summarizes the fatigue properties of three commonly studied structural alloys, namely aluminum alloy, titanium alloy, and nickel-base superalloy. additively...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... Abstract Part quality in additive manufacturing (AM) is highly dependent on process control, but there is a lack of adequate AM control methods and standards. Laser powder-bed fusion (L-PBF) is one of the most-used metal AM techniques. This article focuses on the following laser control...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006992
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... metal AM, including methods to identify pores and voids in AM materials, are the focus. The article reviews flaw formation in laser-based powder-bed fusion, summarizes sensors used for in situ process monitoring, and outlines advances made with in situ process-monitoring data to detect AM process flaws...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006957
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... presents two key opportunities for AM related to automotive applications, specifically within the realm of metal laser powder-bed fusion: alloys and product designs capable of high throughput. The article also presents the general methodology of alloy development for automotive AM. It provides examples...
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Published: 30 June 2023
Fig. 1 Available powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing test bed, including sensor modalities. Reprinted from Ref 41 under License CC BY-NC-ND 4.0, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ , and from Ref 42 with permission from Elsevier More
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Published: 15 June 2020
Fig. 3 Sales of polymer powder feedstock for powder bed fusion ( Ref 3 ). USD, United States dollar More
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Published: 12 September 2022
Fig. 10 Additive manufacturing powder-bed fusion powder-handling system More
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Published: 12 September 2022
Fig. 11 Powder characterization in the powder-bed fusion process. DSC, differential scanning calorimetry; TG, thermogravimetry; FTIR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; EDX, energy-dispersive x-ray analysis; XRD, x-ray diffraction; AFM, atomic force microscopy More
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Published: 15 June 2020
Fig. 5 Microstructure of laser powder bed fusion build showing distinct nonisotropic weld patterns. Source: Ref 37 More
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Published: 15 June 2020
Fig. 2 Dynamic x-ray images of a laser powder-bed fusion process for Ti-6Al-4V, where a keyhole pore is formed upon increasing the laser power used for processing. Scale bars are 200 μm. Source: Ref 19 More
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Published: 15 June 2020
Fig. 7 Microstructure of (a) as-printed laser powder-bed fusion Ti-6Al-4V, (b) heat treated for 2 h at 800 °C (1470 °F), and (c) processed by hot isostatic pressing for 4 h at 950 °C (1740 °F). More coarsening occurs at higher temperatures. Source: Ref 29 More
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Published: 15 June 2020
Fig. 5 Microstructures of Cu-1.3Cr fabricated with laser powder-bed fusion. (a) As-fabricated condition. (b) Limited grain coarsening after direct aging at 450 °C (840 °F). Source: Ref 61 More
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Published: 15 June 2020
Fig. 7 Microstructures of (a) laser powder-bed fusion and (b) wrought Cu7Ni2SiCr More
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Published: 15 June 2020
Fig. 21 Schematic illustrating a typical laser powder-bed fusion system More