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powder diffraction methods

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Published: 01 January 1986
Fig. 13 The geometry of powder diffraction and several detection methods used in XRPD. (a) Cones of diffracted beams emanating from a powder sample. (b) The Debye-Scherrer detection method. (c) The diffractometer method of detection. (d) Position-sensitive detection. (e) Guinier method More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006643
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... for polychromatic and monochromatic beams, powder diffraction methods, and the Rietveld method. X-ray diffraction powder diffraction methods single-crystal methods Rietveld refinement Introduction Diffraction techniques are some of the most useful in the characterization of crystalline materials...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... research. It describes the instrumentation required for, and advancements made in, neutron powder diffraction. The article further explains the texture and residual stress (macrostresses and microstresses) problems that are analyzed using the neutron powder diffraction method. It also outlines the single...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... diffraction analysis Table 1 X-ray diffraction analysis Type of analysis Method Sample Crystal geometry Moving crystal-spot pattern Single crystal Computer positioned diffractometer Single crystal Solution of d -spacing equations Powder Arrangement of atoms Analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... availability and prevalence. In general, an x-ray powder diffraction characterization of a substance consists of placing a powder sample in a collimated monochromatic beam of x-radiation. For crystalline materials, diffraction takes place as described in “Introduction to Diffraction Methods” to produce...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005731
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... and characterize the raw materials. This article discusses various characterization methods for powders. Topics discussed include: methods for determining particle size and/or size distribution; powder and coating stoichiometry; particle chemistry; and phase analysis by x-ray diffraction. This article discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... and the techniques used to characterize samples. The article then describes the principles, advantages, and disadvantages of various types of powder diffractometers. A section on the Rietveld method of diffraction analysis is then presented. The article discusses various methods and procedures for qualifying...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... film, analog, or digital methods is a function of interplanar distance d , or as a function of diffraction angle 2θ. Modern automated powder diffractometers provide a tabular listing of peak intensity versus interplanar spacing, search/match software, and other utilities. Figure 9...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
...Abstract Abstract This article provides an overview of the general methods of metal powder production. It details the primary methods for particle sizing used in additive manufacturing: sieving, laser diffraction and scattering, and digital image analysis. Methods of interpreting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... of these methods are reviewed. aerodynamic time-of-flight method electrical zone sensing laser diffraction metal powders particle size particle size distribution photon correlation spectroscopy quantitative image analysis sample preparation sedimentation methods sieve analysis PARTICLE SIZE...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006649
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...) … … 0 0.1 1.5 98.4 Copper powder (atomized) … 0 0.4 11.9 28.8 58.9 Aluminum powder 0 0.4 26.7 40.6 29.6 2.7 Zinc powder … … … 0 12.3 87.7 Stainless steel powder 0 1.2 8.1 14.2 28.4 48.1 Coulter counter and laser diffraction are two effective methods...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... intensities, typically expressed as a percentage of the most intense peak, as shown in Tables 1(a) , 1(b) , and 1(c) . Identification of powder diffraction pattern from Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> using the Hanawalt search method Table 1(a) Identification of powder diffraction pattern from Al 2 O 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...), although modified and carried out by using computer-based search-match methods ( Ref 5 ). All computer methods make use of a diffraction pattern reference database, i.e., the International Centre for Diffraction Data Powder Diffraction File (PDF) ( Ref 6 ). For μXRD data collected using a 2-D detector...
Image
Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 6 Schematic of Debye-Scherrer powder method. (a) Relationship of film to sample, incident beam, and diffracted beams. (b) Appearance of film when developed and laid flat. Source: Ref 3 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the techniques and applications of synchrotron x-ray diffraction, providing information on x-ray generation, monochromation, and crystallography. X-ray diffraction techniques covered include single-crystal and powder diffraction. Some of the factors...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... inexperienced in ceramic analysis. Methods Optical emission spectroscopy is perhaps the most common method used for major and minor constituent analyses, whereas inductively coupled plasma and atomic absorption are usually chosen for trace element work. The bulk chemistry of solid samples and powders can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... faults, defects, and anisotropic diffusion that are not easily disentangled in radially averaging methods where these manifest as superstructures or diffuse scattering. Powder Diffraction Powder diffraction instruments are designed to measure the scattering intensity from polycrystalline samples...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005728
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... that are generally borrowed from other materials science disciplines. This article focuses on commonly used testing and characterization methods: metallography, image analysis, hardness, tensile adhesion testing, corrosion testing, x-ray diffraction, non-destructive testing, and powder characterization. It provides...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... dominates electrical resistivities in metals. Crystallographic Texture Crystallographic texture is a relatively accessible measure of average grain orientation in polycrystalline bodies. Straightforward methods of x-ray (or neutron) diffraction can be used to map grain orientations averaged over many...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., composition, and homogeneity. The higher the atomic number of a material, the more x-rays are absorbed. X-Ray Diffraction X-ray diffraction (XRD) is the most extensively used method for identifying and characterizing various aspects of metals related to the arrangements and spacings of their atoms...