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powder diffraction methods

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006643
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... monochromatic beams, powder diffraction methods, and the Rietveld method. X-ray diffraction powder diffraction methods single-crystal methods Rietveld refinement References 1. Giacovazzo C. , Monaco H.L. , Artioli G. , Viterbo D. , Milanesio M. , Gilli...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... describes the instrumentation required for, and advancements made in, neutron powder diffraction. The article further explains the texture and residual stress (macrostresses and microstresses) problems that are analyzed using the neutron powder diffraction method. It also outlines the single-crystal neutron...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
.... Table 1 X-ray diffraction analysis Type of analysis Method Sample Crystal geometry Moving crystal-spot pattern Single crystal Computer positioned diffractometer Single crystal Solution of d -spacing equations Powder Arrangement of atoms Analysis of diffracted intensities...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... techniques used to characterize samples. The article then describes the principles, advantages, and disadvantages of various types of powder diffractometers. A section on the Rietveld method of diffraction analysis is then presented. The article discusses various methods and procedures for qualifying and...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... • Alexander L.E. , X-Ray Diffraction Methods in Polymer Science , Wiley-Inter-science , 1980 • Azaroff L.V. and Buerser M.J. , The Powder Method in X-Ray Crystallography , McGraw-Hill , 1958 • Barrett C.S. and Massalski T.B. , Structure of Metals , Pergamon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... Abstract This article provides an overview of the general methods of metal powder production. It details the primary methods for particle sizing used in additive manufacturing: sieving, laser diffraction and scattering, and digital image analysis. Methods of interpreting and understanding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article discusses the techniques and applications of synchrotron x-ray diffraction, providing information on x-ray generation, monochromation, and crystallography. X-ray diffraction techniques covered include single-crystal and powder diffraction. Some of the factors involved in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... independently. This allows the measurement of effects arising from stacking faults, defects, and anisotropic diffusion that are not easily disentangled in radially averaging methods where these manifest as superstructures or diffuse scattering. Powder diffraction instruments are designed to measure the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005731
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... materials. This article discusses various characterization methods for powders. Topics discussed include: methods for determining particle size and/or size distribution; powder and coating stoichiometry; particle chemistry; and phase analysis by x-ray diffraction. This article discusses the characterization...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... ). The θ angles are measured from the film and converted to d -spacings. Intensities are either estimated by eye or quantified using a densitometer. Fig. 6 Schematic of Debye-Scherrer powder method. (a) Relationship of film to sample, incident beam, and diffracted beams. (b) Appearance of film...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... checked readily using a stress-free powder sample ( Ref 15 ). If the diffraction apparatus is properly aligned for residual stress measurement, a loosely compacted powder sample producing diffraction at approximately the Bragg angle to be used for residual stress measurement should indicate not more than...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... ). Jana can work with multiphase structures (for both powder and single-crystal data) and merohedric twins as well as twins with partial overlap of diffraction spots and commensurate and composite structures. It is free for academic use and is available at http://jana.fzu.cz/ . Jana can also be used to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... using a mechanical gage capable of repeat positioning precision of ±0.05 mm (±0.002 in.). The alignment of the diffractometers was established and checked using alloy or base metal powder incapable of supporting macroscopic residual stress, in accordance with ASTM E 915 (Ref 14...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... technique ( Ref 4 ). The technique still has application today (2019), although modified and carried out by using computer-based search-match methods ( Ref 5 ). All computer methods make use of a diffraction pattern reference database, i.e., the International Centre for Diffraction Data Powder Diffraction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... analysis is an essential tool for failure analysis. X-ray diffraction residual-stress measurement methods are commonly applied to the successful completion of failure analyses and, in many cases, are the only viable ones for the acquisition of the required data. X-ray diffraction residual-stress analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... verification of instrument alignment is usually performed on a stress-free powder of the material in which residual stress is to be measured. Ideally, the shear stress should also be on the same order of magnitude as the normal stress, that is ±2 ksi, although technically, this would exceed the ASTM E 915...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... significant: the preferred orientation and the size of the columnar grains. The preferred orientation of a film can be ascertained using a standard x-ray diffractometer by comparing a θ-2θ scan to one from a powder of the same material. This type of measurement also provides the grain size in the vertical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... Diffraction Methods, International Centre for Diffraction Data , Swathmore, PA Many analytical methods are available to determine the chemical composition of powders. The most important are listed in Table 6 . Tables 2 and 3 provide an overview of the...
Book Chapter

By Erhard Klar
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... detrimental at a given concentration because their number is larger.) Source: Ref 4 Special analytical methods are used to guarantee the cleanliness of a powder. Examples include wet analysis, emission or flame spectroscopy, atomic absorption, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray fluorescence. Some of these...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., meant to preserve pore structures and keep them open for analysis. The article compares and contrasts the microstructures of nearly 50 powder metal alloys, using them to illustrate the effect of consolidation and compaction methods as well as particle size, composition, and shape. It discusses imaging...