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powder bed method

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... a discussion on the material combinations, characteristics of laser cladding, and the comparison with arc cladding. It reviews the characteristics and applications of near-net shape processing and explains the process involved in powder bed methods and direct powder methods. arc cladding direct powder...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... Abstract Tungsten, molybdenum, and cemented carbide parts can be produced using several additive manufacturing technologies. This article classifies the most relevant technologies into two groups based on the raw materials used: powder-bed methods, such as selective laser melting, electron beam...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... additive manufacturing (AM) methods of laser and electron beam (e-beam) powder-bed fusion (PBF) and directed-energy deposition (DED). It focuses on methods that monitor the component directly throughout the build process. This article is organized by the type of AM process and by the physics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... section is illuminated and causes the part layer to cure everywhere simultaneously finite-element methods jacobs model material flow models material jetting powder-bed fusion temperature distribution models vat photopolymerization ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005727
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... Abstract This article discusses three types of powder-feeder systems that are commonly used throughout the thermal spray (TS) industry: gravity-based devices, rotating wheel devices, and fluidized-bed systems. It provides information on the various mechanical methods for producing powders...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... was essentially binder jetting of a glue on a bed of ceramic powder. Although this method was capable of producing a usable shell, this process lacked the resolution and surface finish required for the small-part-sized jewelry and dental parts; thus, it was not used in these industries. The predominant AM...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... support material. This contrasts with powder bed methods, in which more powder is needed in the hoppers and bed than what is needed for the part itself. Finally, liquids containing ceramics for material jetting are far easier to use and safer to handle than ceramic powder, which can cause hazardous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... to the previously deposited layer. The process is repeated to build up the part. Another method for PBF, shown in Fig. 2 , involves selectively depositing a fusing agent and/or detailing agent on the surface of the powder bed after powder is deposited. Here, an infrared light source bathes the surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
.... Compared to the situation in AM where thin powder layers are created and no compression or tapping is applied, this method is not truly reflective of the layer packing density in the powder bed of a powder-bed fusion AM machine ( Ref 4 ). The Freeman FT4 rheometer (Freeman Technology, Malvern, U.K...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... that will perform well in practical applications. Fig. 1 In-depth variation of x-ray intensity of vanadium, carbon, iron, and other elements in vanadium carbide coatings formed on W1 by high-temperature fluidized beds with the addition of 10 wt% ferrovanadium powders. Coating temperature: 1000 °C (1830 °F...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... the final density of an additively manufactured component and is thought to contribute to powder feeding in directed-energy deposition and powder-bed fusion ( Ref 5 – 8 ). The following sections detail the primary methods for particle sizing used in additive manufacturing: sieving, laser diffraction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... an example of raw and calibrated data for an Inconel 718 powder bed process in which variations in emissivity have been accounted for, allowing for experimental correlations to serve as predictors of part microstructure ( Ref 24 ). While not fundamentally thermographic imaging, similar methods are used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... is not a consumable as it is in powder bed fusion. To begin the print, powder is dispensed from the holding container. With a hopper system, powder is held above the build area and is gravity fed into a dispensing mechanism or “recoater,” which deposits the material on top of the build area. Other methods...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
...) Fig. 11 Schematic of powder bed fusion Fig. 12 Powder bed fusion part, nylon. Courtesy of 3D Systems Fig. 13 Schematic of directed energy deposition Fig. 14 Representative directed energy deposition parts. (a) Pure copper septagon structure 175 mm in diameter and 200 mm...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... Fig. 9 Housholder powder-bed fusion. Source: Ref 30 Fig. 10 Early part produced by Housholder (powder-bed fusion), ~1979. Source: Ref 31 , 32 Fig. 11 Kodama’s 1981arrangements for vat polymerization. (a) Mask top-down arrangement. (b) Mask bottom-up arrangement. (c) Gantry...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005927
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Fabricated from Metals and Alloys , Met. Sci. Heat Treat. , Vol 47 ( No. 3–4 ), 2005 , p 83 – 96 10.1007/s11041-005-0035-1 6. Botterill J.S.M. , Fluid-Bed Heat Transfer , Academic Press , London, New York , 1975 7. Geldart D. , Types of Gas Fluidized , Powder Technol...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006581
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
...-dimensional (3-D) object is built up layer by layer using various methods for depositing material, whether plastic, ceramic, or metal. The deposition methods use a powder-bed system, a powder-feed system, or a wire-feed system. Powders are solidified by melting with either a high-energy electron or laser beam...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.9781627082907
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... Furan/phenolic Modified furan Sand feedstock particle size, μm 280–500 140/190/250 200 Source: Ref 40 – 42 Fig. 7 Liquid permeation into powder bed with irregular particle morphology. (a) Schematic of large void formation. (b) Schematic of capillary cylinder model. Source: Ref 22...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... Abstract This article focuses on the theory, advantages, and limitations of various methods used for the determination of surface area, density, and porosity of powder. These include gas adsorption, permeametry, pycnometry, and mercury porosimetry. Information on various equipment used...