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pouring stream protection

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005296
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... such as near-net shape casting, tundish metallurgy, and pouring stream protection. The article discusses the use and capabilities of different molds for steel continuous casting, including thin-wall tube-type molds, solid molds, and plate molds. The article explains the methods for enhancing productivity...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005352
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of flow of the molten metal to help prevent the transfer of slag into the molds during pouring. Dams are the projections rising from the bottom of a launder. Weirs are projections coming down into the top of the pour stream. Launders are used in the tapping of blast furnaces (several hundred in 30 min...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005334
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... is ready to pour. At this stage, the skin formed by the protective agent is pushed back to ensure that none of it enters the molten metal stream. During the actual pour, the metal stream can be adequately protected by use of a protective gas system or by dusting with sulfur. When pouring...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006329
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... castability cupola melting feeding systems fluidity foundry gray iron gray iron castings induction melting iron foundry casting melting mold inoculation molten metal treatment pouring shrinkage stream inoculation FOUNDRY PRACTICES critical to the production of cast irons include melting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... the entrainment of air or mold gases into the stream of metal Preventing slag, dross, or mold material from entering the mold Producing heat-transfer characteristics that will aid in the progressive solidification of the casting Enabling production of the casting with the use of a minimum amount of metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... the gas stream before reaching the bag house is necessary to protect the bags from excessive heat. The two most popular heat-exchange systems are the air-to-air and air-to-liquid heat-exchange systems. The engineering for either is complex and a challenge for mass flow and heat-removal requirements...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... performance in a particular base iron under a given set of foundry conditions. Addition Methods Ladle inoculation is a common method of treating gray iron. In this method, the alloy is added to the metal stream as it flows from the transfer ladle into the pouring ladle. A small heel of metal should...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... is poured, a proper solidification and cooling rate must be established in the mold to obtain a desired casting microstructure, protect the mold, and achieve required productivity. There must be a means of adding inoculants or fluxes for some special applications. There must be a means of extracting...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... the stream of molten steel. In addition, the bottom-pour ladle delivers cleaner metal to the mold. Inclusions, pieces of ladle lining, and slag float to the top of the ladle; therefore, pouring from the bottom greatly reduces the risk of passing nonmetallic particles into the mold cavity. On the other...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003174
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... as it flows from the transfer ladle to the pouring ladle. Stream inoculation is the addition of the inoculant to the pouring stream as the metal enters the mold. Mold inoculation involves placing the inoculant in the mold, usually at the base of the sprue. These last three methods are referred to as “late...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... they start to leak. Special nozzles have been developed to prevent this leakage if it is desired to interrupt the flow to fill numerous castings. Bottom pouring is preferred for pouring large castings from large ladles, because it is difficult to tip a large ladle and still control the stream of molten...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., including melting practices (e.g., selection of melting furnace and molten-metal treatments), pouring practices, and gating and risering techniques Proper selection of the casting process, which, in turn, depends on the size, shape, and technical requirements of the product This article addresses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005904
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
.... It discusses the various processes involved in melting, holding, and pouring of liquid melt in crucible induction furnaces wherein the holding operation is carried out in channel furnace and pouring operation in pressure-actuated pouring furnaces. The article examines the behavior of furnace refractory lining...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... as close to the pour cup as possible, in no case more than 25 mm (1 inch) above the cup. Turbulence must be avoided in the flowing stream. As in the casting of ferrous metals, venting the mold is important to assure that the mold fills evenly. Permanent Molding Permanent molding is often used...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005258
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... information on expendable and permanent molds used for centrifugal casting. The parameters and operations of the horizontal centrifugal casting process, including pouring and solidification, as well as the applications are described. horizontal centrifugal casting solidification flanged shaft machine...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003172
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... the streams meet. The process has had wide acceptance in the automotive industry and has grown steadily in popularity since the late 1980s. Vacuum Molding (V-Process) In this binderless process, the sand is positioned between two sheets of thin plastic and held in place during pouring by application...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005903
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... it with the melt stream at approximately 2 3 of the filling time. If the melt is passed on to a pouring furnace, ladle inoculation should be avoided, if possible. This is primarily because the inoculation effect is gradually lost with time spent in the pouring furnace d, secondly, because the oxides...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... a), the slag or dross must be held back during pouring. The teapot ladle ( Fig. 12 b) is most effective for keeping slag out of the mold. Bottom pour ladles ( Fig. 12 c) are effective only when the metal stream from the exit of the ladle to the sprue and the sprue itself are shrouded in an inert gas, because...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... Fig. 1 Ductile iron crankshaft segment essentially free of exogenous inclusions (1, left) and with numerous exogenous inclusions (2, right). Low pouring temperature and poor mold-filling practice were the cause of the inclusions in part 2. Indigenous Inclusions Indigenous inclusions...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... with an insulating coating so that they are protected against the damaging effects of thermal shock that occur when the molten metal is poured. Thin sections are coated with materials of various compositions and thicknesses that have certain heat-transfer characteristics. Heavy sections are coated with other types...