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potassium cyanide baths

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... cyanide (strike) Standard barrel Low concentration (a) High concentration (a) Sodium cyanide (b) Potassium cyanide (b) Bath composition, g/L (oz/gal) Copper cyanide 22 (3) 45 (6) 26 (4) 60 (8) 80 (11) 80 (11) Sodium cyanide 33 (4) 68 (9) 35 (5) 80 (11) 105 (14) 105 (14...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... (0.05 to 0.1 mil) of copper prior to further copper plating or electrodeposition of other metals. High-Efficiency Sodium and Potassium Cyanide Baths With proprietary additives, the high-concentration baths are used to produce deposits of various degrees of brightness and leveling, in thicknesses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... unfavorable temperature gradients must be periodically removed from all baths. In normal operation, overheating of any bath (above 595 °C, or 1100 °F) should be avoided. Some of the compositions employed in liquid nitriding processes contain sodium cyanide or potassium cyanide, or both. These compounds...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001266
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Compositions and operating conditions for cyanide-base electroless gold plating baths Table 1 Compositions and operating conditions for cyanide-base electroless gold plating baths Reported by Y. Okinaka ( Ref 1 ) Constituent or condition Bath A Bath B Potassium gold cyanide 0.003...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... control, or wide ranges of current density. The basic ingredients of a cyanide brass plating solution are sodium (or infrequently potassium) cyanide, copper cyanide, and zinc cyanide. Also present in the bath make up are ammonia (added intentionally or by decomposition of cyanide) and carbonate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...) Time, s 10-20 15-30 10-20 (a) (a) 12.5 min at 0.3 A/dm 2 (3 A/ft 2 ) gives 100 μin. Acid gold industrial plating baths Table 4 Acid gold industrial plating baths Component or parameter Bright, hard acid Weak acid Regular baths Gold as potassium gold cyanide g/L...
Book Chapter

By A. Sato
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Abstract Abstract Commercial zinc plating is accomplished by a number of distinctively different systems: cyanide baths, alkaline noncyanide baths, and acid chloride baths. This article focuses on the composition, advantages, disadvantages, operating parameters, and applications of each...
Book Chapter

By Alan Blair
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Plating solutions for silver Table 1 Plating solutions for silver Component/Parameter Rack Barrel Silver as KAg(CN) 2 , g/L (oz/gal) 15–40 (2.0–2.5) 5–20 (0.7–2.5) Potassium cyanide (free), g/L (oz/gal) 12–120 (1.6–16) 25–75 (3.3–10) Potassium carbonate (min), g/L (oz/gal...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... bath. The introduction of air provides agitation and stimulates chemical activity. The cyanide content of this bath, calculated as sodium cyanide, is maintained at preferably about 50 to 60% of the total bath content, and the cyanate is maintained at 32 to 38%. The potassium content of the fused bath...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., zinc cyanide, potassium cyanide, and potassium hydroxide. The amount of potassium cyanide determined by analysis is higher than that added to the bath initially, because the analysis also detects the cyanide in zinc cyanide. 7Sn-93Pb solution is used for bearings and corrosion protection of steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...-alkalinity brass plating solutions Table 2 High-alkalinity brass plating solutions Constituent or condition Original (potassium) High-speed strip plating Modern Makeup Sodium cyanide, g/L (oz/gal) … 120 (16.1) 125 (16.8) Potassium cyanide, g/L (oz/gal) 125 (16.8) … … Copper...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... carburizing baths. Because of greater efficiency and lower cost, sodium cyanide is used instead of the more expensive potassium cyanide. The active hardening agents of cyaniding baths—carbon monoxide and nitrogen—are not produced directly from sodium cyanide. Molten cyanide decomposes in the presence...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... are not contaminated with cyanides, organic compounds, or water. Medium-temperature (650 to1000 °C, or 1200 to 1830 °F) neutral baths that are binary or ternary mixtures of the following salts: potassium chloride, sodium chloride, barium chloride, or calcium chloride (see Table 1 for two typical examples...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006491
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... conditions of a successful immersion tin bath are: Potassium stannate: 100 g/L (13.40 oz/gal) Zinc acetate: 2 g/L (0.27 oz/gal) m -Cresol sulfonic acid: 35 g/L (4.40 oz/gal) Temperature of solution: 60 °C (140 °F) Immersion time: 2 min Degreasing is the only pretreatment required...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... electroplated with cadmium from conventional plating baths. A typical bath has the following composition: Cadmium oxide 22 to 33 g/L (3.0 to 4.5 oz/gal) Sodium cyanide 85 to 110 g/L (11.5 to 15.0 oz/gal) Sodium hydroxide 16 to 24 g/L (2.1 to 3.2 oz/gal) Brightening agent As required...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... surface with, or dip a test panel into, an unheated chromate conversion coating bath of the acid type until an orange-colored film is formed. A uniform orange film indicates a chemically clean surface. Solvent Cleaning The primary function of solvent cleaners is to remove oil and grease compounds...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Time for plating cadmium to a given thickness at various current densities Table 3 Time for plating cadmium to a given thickness at various current densities Data based on 90% cathode efficiency, in a cyanide bath Thickness of plate Plating time in minutes at current density specified...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... by reversing the current in 30 g/L (4 oz/gal) solution of sodium cyanide at approximately 50 to 55 °C (122 to 131 °F). The silver-indium alloy can be removed in 1:1 nitric acid, but care must be taken to remove it from the bath before the steel is etched. No ASTM, ISO, or U.S. government specifications...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006635
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of lead(II) iodide 3. Sulfuric acid, dilute White precipitate of lead(II) sulfate 4. Hydrogen sulfide gas Black precipitate of lead(II) sulfide 5. Potassium cyanide White precipitate of lead(II) cyanide 6. Tetramethyldiaminodiphenyl-methane Blue oxidation product (presence of Bi, Ce, Mn...
Book Chapter

By Nabil Zaki
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...) 110–130 (15–17) Potassium chloride, g/L (oz/gal) 200–250 (27–33) Ammonium chloride (a) , g/L (oz/gal) 100–200 (13–27) Organic additives, g/L (oz/gal) (a) 5–10 (0.66–1.3) pH 5–6 Anodes Zinc and nickel connected to two separate rectifiers Alkaline baths Sodium hydroxide, g/L...