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porous-type anodic oxide film

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Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 2 Structure of porous type anodic oxide film formed on aluminum in acid solutions More
Image
Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 9 TEM image of the vertical section of a porous type anodic oxide film on aluminum. The aluminum specimen was anodized for 5 min at 30 V in 0.16 M oxalic acid solution at 40 °C (140 °F) and then immersed for 1 h on open circuit in the same solution. More
Image
Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 6 Distribution of protons and anions in porous type anodic oxide films. A, Al 2 O 3−x (anion) y · z H 2 O; B, Al 2 O 3−x (anion) y ; C, Al 2 O 3 More
Image
Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 7 Coloring of porous type anodic oxide films on aluminum by (a) integral coloring, (b) dyeing, and (c) electrolytic coloring More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract Anodizing is one of the most common surface treatments of aluminum and is performed for corrosion protection. This article describes the structure and growth characteristics of the types of anodic oxide films such as a barrier-type oxide film and a porous-type anodic oxide film...
Book Chapter

By Jude Mary Runge
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006523
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... and growth of anodic aluminum oxide and the important characteristics of the finished porous anodic aluminum oxide. In industry, anodic oxides and the anodizing processes have been categorized into types that exhibit specific properties to suit specific applications. The article reviews the two most basic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006491
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... and density. Such variations can result in differences in adhesion of the electroplated layer. The natural oxide film on aluminum prevents adequate adhesion of an electroplated deposit. However, formation of an anodic oxide coating on the aluminum surface under controlled conditions is a recognized...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Formation of anodic film during electropolishing Anodic Processes Anodic dissolution processes are complex. Depending on the nature of the dissolving metal (M), the electrolyte composition, and the current density, the following anodic (oxidation) reactions may occur: Transfer of metal ions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... (i.e., conversion coating or thin anodized film). The exposure of the freshly acidic-etched (pickled) surface to boiling water produces a corrosion-resistant but only moderately strong oxide layer. Thus, this surface treatment method should only be used for lightly stressed joints using flexible...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... changes in battery performance that are partly impacted by the kinetics of oxidation of the anode material. When the anode is a metal, the curves are influenced by the same types of activation and mass transport barriers that are commonly studied for controlling the corrosion of structural and electronic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... to be treated is immersed as the anode in an acid electrolyte, and a direct current is applied. Oxidation of the surface occurs to produce a greatly thickened, hard, porous film of aluminum oxide. This film is then normally immersed in boiling water to seal the porosity and render the film impermeable ( Ref 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... alloys. The article also illustrates the effects of alloying on active anodic corrosion of titanium and repassivation behavior of titanium and titanium-base alloys. titanium oxide film titanium oxide depassivation scratching abrading fretting titanium alloys hexagonal close-packed beta...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Anodizing refers to conversion coating of the surface of aluminum and its alloys to porous aluminum oxide. This article provides the reasons for performing anodizing and discusses the three principal types of anodizing processes, namely, chromic acid process, sulfuric acid process...
Book Chapter

By Mark C. Williams
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003602
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... technology for tubular solid-oxide fuel cells Component Circa 1965 Circa 1975 Current status (a) Anode Porous Pt Ni/ZrO 2 cermet Ni/ZrO 2 cermet Deposit slurry, EVD fixed 12.5 × 10 −6 /°C CTE ∼150 μm (∼6 mils) thickness 20–40% porosity Cathode Porous Pt Stabilized ZrO 2 impregnated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... if there is no film and the tin is dissolving as stannite ion, with tin in the Sn +2 state. The presence of stannite in the electrolyte produces unsatisfactory plating conditions, and the deposit becomes bulky, rough, porous, and nonadherent. The addition of hydrogen peroxide to the electrolyte oxidizes the Sn +2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... anodized coatings plasma-sprayed coatings BERYLLIUM, like aluminum, is a thermodynamically reactive metal that forms a thin, well-bonded oxide layer on the surface at room temperature. Of the structural metals, only magnesium is more reactive. The oxide film on beryllium is approximately 10 nm (0.4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... to the equilibrium between a metal and one of its oxides/hydroxides. The article schematically illustrates a current-potential or polarization curve for an anodic process. kinetics aqueous corrosion equilibrium potentials electrochemical reaction Nernst equation electronic conductivity passive films...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... of these separate reactions at the anode and cathode is equivalent to the overall cell reaction. Fuel is supplied to the negative electrode (anode). The anode is porous so that fuel can pass through it. The anode provides an interface for the fuel and electrolyte, can catalyze the fuel oxidation reaction...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of an acid cleaner is the removal of surface oxides prior to resistance welding, painting, conversion coating, bright dipping, etching, or anodizing. A mixture of chromic and sulfuric acids is commonly used to remove surface oxides, burntin oil, water strains, or other films, such as the iridescent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... conditions for color dipping include a solution that removes red copper oxide and imparts a film that resists discoloration during storage and work: Sodium dichromate 30 to 90 g/L (4 to 12 oz/gal) Sulfuric acid, 1.83 sp gr 5 to 10 vol% Water bal Immersion time 30 s Temperature...