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population mean

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0009213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... on the probability density function, cumulative distribution function, population mean and variance, and parameter and percentile estimation. binomial distribution cumulative distribution function exponential distribution log normal distribution normal distribution Poisson distribution population mean...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0009212
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... mechanical properties can vary over a significant range, some values are more typical than others. These typical values are described statistically as the mean or expected value, median, and mode. Mean or Expected Value The population mean or the expected value of a continuous random variable may...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0009216
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... of the population mean and standard deviation, or (2) the sample includes 300 or more individual, representative observations of the property to be determined. For example, suppose that the available data for a relatively new alloy consist of 50 observations of tensile ultimate strength (TUS) in the specified...
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Published: 01 June 2012
orthopaedic implants, among patient populations with well-functioning metal-on-metal implants, and among patients with failing implants (i.e., pre-revision). All subjects were tested by means of a patch or metal- lymphocyte transformation testing. TJA, total joint arthroplasty; THA, total hip arthroplasty More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002431
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
...); these observations are considered a statistical sample of this never-attainable, infinite population. Intuitively, an increase in the number of observations (the sample size), should increase the accuracy of the sample estimate of the real, or population material properties. The mean, or arithmetic average...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0009219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... within which the population mean curve could be expected to be located with a stated level of confidence. Fig. 8 Confidence limits on the mean fatigue curve Confidence limits can also be constructed on the least squares parameters. Confidence limits on the intercept term in Eq 8...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001727
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... samples can be calculated, and confidence limits for the average composition established using: (Eq 1) μ = x ¯ ± t s s n where μ is the true mean value of the population, x is the average of the analytical measurements, and t is obtained from statistical tables for n...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... ¯ , and sample standard deviation, s . These are called point estimates of the exact, but unknown, values of mean and standard deviation of the total population. Other important statistics are the basis values , which are interval estimates of a given percentile of the total population. The first two terms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003712
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Measures of central tendency are mean, median, and mode. Mean Mean is the arithmetic average. When n is the sample size and N is the population size: (Eq 1) Sample mean:  x ¯ = ∑ i = 1 n X i n (Eq 2) Population mean:    μ = ∑ i = 1 N X i...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... population distribution-type has a unique means of determining allowable values, but the basic procedures are similar. Sample Size The most common question when planning a test program to determine allowables is probably, “How many tests are enough?” As seen previously, the answer is significant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002370
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... cycling about a possible mean load that leads to the fracture of a single part or specimen. The article discusses the evaluation of the range of transition and of the finite-endurance range for fatigue curves. It concludes with a discussion on extrapolation from the range of finite endurance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.9781627081764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
...Abstract Abstract Reliability is a measure of the capacity of equipment or systems to operate without failure in the service environment. This article focuses on reliability in design and presents equations governing the instantaneous failure rate, general reliability function, mean time...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... the effects of microorganisms other than SRB on metals. SRB-related problems, which are the most common MIC issue, are also explored. The article describes the test procedures used to enumerate microbiological populations. It concludes with a discussion on risk assessment based on operating conditions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005505
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... method. During the search, it covers a wide range of the design space. The idea behind this is that the nature of the function is not known a priori, so one must do a wide exploration and not just go down the path of steepest descend. This means that if Hooke-Jeeves is used on a quadratic function...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... , 58 , 59 , 60 ). The geometric attributes of microstructural features can be divided into the following categories: Numerical extents of microstructural features (how much?) Number density of microstructural features (how many?) Derived microstructural properties (grain size, mean...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005892
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... increase of at least one of the other functions. Basically, this means having a family of optimal solutions to be compared; a posteriori, the designer can select a single solution according to extra criteria of decision making. A recent survey of state-of-the-art optimal design methods...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006634
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... that the sample has been properly drawn from the parent population material, and properly prepared. The term “sampling,” which describes the process of obtaining the sample from the population material, implies the existence of a sampling uncertainty, arising mainly from population material heterogeneity ( Ref 5...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... Moderate abrasion/erosion and corrosion Tungsten carbide-based overlays Sizing screens, crusher cones Impact, abrasion Ground engaging tools High stress abrasion Metal alloy hardfacings contain multiple elements, which when heated will tend to form a high population of precipitate phases...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... versus sin 2 ψ plot is linear. This means that, to ensure accurate results on a wide variety of samples and measurement locations, many ψ tilts using both ψ > 0 and ψ < 0 and elliptical fitting methods should be applied. The use of true ψ or χ (chi) geometry, sometimes referred to as Ω (omega...