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polymorphism

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
.... age hardening allotropy alloying aluminum-copper system binary system Clausius-Clapeyron equation crystal structure Gibbs phase rule heat treatment iron-carbon phase diagram Lever rule phase diagram polymorphism solid-state transformation solidification ternary diagrams Theorem of Le...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... crystallization, and polymorphous crystallization. The article demonstrates a free-energy versus composition diagram that summarizes many of the devitrification routes. It provides a historical review of the corrosion behavior of fully amorphous and partially devitrified metallic glasses. The article describes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
..., tough, attractive surface with excellent abrasion resistance and high resistance to water and effluent chemicals. High-performance polymorphic resin coatings are also available. Polymorphic resin coatings are based on a polyester resin and cure extremely quickly. They are resistant to chemicals and...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
..., crystal structure analysis. The powder method, as it is referred to, is perhaps best known for its use as a phase characterization tool partly because it can routinely differentiate between phases having the same chemical composition but different crystal structures (polymorphs). Although chemical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... differentiate between phases having the same chemical composition but different crystal structures (polymorphs). Although chemical analysis can indicate that the empirical formula for a given sample is FeTiO 3 , it cannot determine whether the sample is a mixture of two phases (FeO and one of the three...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... composition but different crystal structures (polymorphs). Although chemical analysis can indicate that the empirical formula for a given sample is FeTiO 3 , it cannot determine whether the sample is a mixture of two phases (FeO and one of the three polymorphic forms of TiO 2 ) or whether the sample is the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... polymorphic (multishaped), that is, their structure transforms from one crystal structure to another with changes in temperature and pressure, each unique structure constituting a distinctively separate phase. The term allotropy (existing in another form) is usually used to describe polymorphic changes in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... structure analysis can become the basis for broader conclusions. Thus, determination of crystal structure is quite essential to understanding the formation conditions of crystalline substances. For instance, compounds of the same chemical composition can exist in various polymorph modifications, which...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... above the germanium K-edge in glassy GeO 2 to 350 eV and compared to those of the hexagonal and tetragonal crystalline polymorphs shown in Fig. 3 . The extended absorption fine structures of glassy and hexagonal GeO 2 , in which germanium is 4-fold coordinated by oxygen, were similar, but differed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
..., and deagglomeration. The article also provides useful information on milling equipment such as tumbler ball mills, vibratory ball mills, attrition mills, and hammer and rod mills. References 1. Senna M. and Kuno H. , Polymorphic Transformation of PbO by Isothermal Wet Ball...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... Solubilities of alloying elements in γ, β, and α polymorphs of uranium. Source: Ref 17 Fig. 4 A portion of the U-Ti equilibrium phase diagram. Source: Ref 17 Fig. 5 Generalized time-temperature-transformation diagram showing heat treatments employed with uranium alloys. Slow cooling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... area/microstructure effects on oxidation similar to those discussed previously for lithium-metal batteries. In particular, much research has focused on the prevention of anode passivation using chemical additives that promote more desirable polymorphs of lead sulfate. The constructive corrosion of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003166
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... exhibits three polymorphic forms: γ phase (body-centered cubic, or bcc) above 771 °C (1420 °F), β phase (tetragonal) between 665 and 771 °C (1229 and 1420 °F), and α phase (orthorhombic) below 665 °C (1229 °F). The high-temperature γ phase is very soft and ductile, and dynamic recrystallization occurs when...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006672
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... capacity ( C p ) Processing conditions Melting temperature ( T m ) Polymorphic forms, purity, quality control Polymers T g Indicator of material properties, quality control, effect of additives T m Polymer processing, heat history Exotherm Reactions rate, curing of materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627082136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... changes (polymorphism) (a) Source: Ref 3 The geometry of the crystal lattice controls the directions of diffracted beams. The intensities of these beams depend on the types of atoms in the crystal and their arrangement in the unit cell. If a unit cell were composed of a single...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... crystalline form, a phenomenon known as polymorphism. When found in elemental solids, the condition is known as allotropy. The prevailing crystal structure depends on both the temperature and external pressure. For example, at atmospheric pressure, iron is bcc at temperatures below 912 °C (1674 °F), fcc...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... nonlocalized precipitation of the second phase. Discontinuous precipitation can occur at regions such as grain boundaries, or cellular precipitation where precipitation begins at grain-boundary polymorphs but does not continue through the entire grain. An example of typical precipitation in aluminum alloys is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... materials, such as intermetallics, can lead to solid-state failure during welding if the thermal stresses associated with the weld thermal cycle exceed the local tensile strength. Cracks may also occur in alloys that undergo polymorphic transformations during the weld thermal cycle. The act of fusion...