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polymer processing

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... resin blend component. This reaction is the polymerization and curing reaction, which of course is a thermoset reaction. The main distinguishing characteristic of polyurea technology as compared to polyurethanes is that amine-terminated (–NH 2 and/or –NHR, primary and/or secondary amines) resins are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005672
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... forms, from low-viscosity liquids to solid pastes or films. During the curing process, epoxy adhesives polymerize and crosslink to form covalent bonds between the epoxy resin and hardener through an epoxide ring-opening reaction. Amines, amides, mercaptans, and anhydrides are common hardeners...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... (PVC) sheet might be comprised of 53.5% PVC, 32.5% plasticizers, 8.0% extenders, 5.0% flame-retardant agents, 0.5% lubricants, and 0.5% stabilizers. Additives can be combined with the polymer during polymerization, compounding, or processing. For successful addition during...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003014
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... in which the material solidifies and from which it can then be removed. In thermoset injection molding, a reacting material is forced into a generally warm mold in which the material further polymerizes or cross-links into a solid part. Injection-molding compounds are thermoplastic or...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... high shear sections needed to process polyolefins tend to overwork the more heat-sensitive engineering thermoplastics, causing overheated material, poor melt strength, and polymer degradation. Aluminum and steel are the most common mold materials used for blow-mold tooling. Because blow molding is...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... consistently against the die pressure. Extruders with multiple screws were primarily developed as compounding devices to uniformly blend plasticizers, fillers, pigments, stabilizers, and other additives into the polymer. However, these devices have also been used to process plastics...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Rotational molding is a simple but unique process that has the capability of producing small to large hollow items with very uniform wall thicknesses. Providing an overview of the operating principles of rotational molding, this article discusses the key selection factors, including...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), acrylic compounds, ionic polymers, nitrile resins, and polycarbonates (PCs). From the standpoint of an overall system, the thermoforming process consists of four phases: sheet transportation...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... this basic structure permits the engineers to understand which polymers may be acceptable for a certain application, and which may not. There are various possible classification schemes for polymers. Typical classification categories include polymerization process, chemical elements that make up the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., or 500 ksi) and stiffness (132 GPa, or 19 × 10 6 psi) were possible. Aramid fiber is unusual in that it is technically a thermoplastic polymer (like nylon), but rather than melting when heated, it decomposes before reaching its projected melting temperature. With polymerization, it forms rigid...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... reviews the important quality control techniques used during the manufacture of composite components by analyzing tooling control, material control, pattern orientation control, and in-process control. composite components equipment design in-process control material control nondestructive...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Relatively limited effort has gone into developing repair processes and materials for composites, in contrast to the significant labor and expense that has gone into the development of these materials for numerous critical applications. As composites gain wider acceptance as aerospace...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... final configuration and to establishing appropriate applications of the material (such as polymeric foams as insulating structures). In thermoplastic processing, heat energy is either transferred or exchanged in the material to effect sufficient fluidity such that the polymer can be shaped and/or...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract This article describes the use of conventional machining techniques, laser cutting and water-jet cutting for producing finished composite parts. It explains two representative polymer-matrix composites--graphite and aramid composites--and discusses the machining and drilling problems...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... to flow together, such as when metal surfaces melt and flow together during welding. In cohesive bonding, there is an intermingling of molecules between substrates. In thermoplastics and thermoplastic composites (TPCs), the fusion process involves heating the polymer to a viscous state and physically...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract This article introduces the principal methodologies and some advanced technologies that are being applied for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composites. These include acoustic emission, ultrasonic, eddy-current, computed tomography, electromagnetic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... their polymerization or processing may differ quite substantially. For example, industrial or medical grades of the same polymer may be synthesized using different upstream chemicals or supply sources. Any adverse observations may be due to the differing source and purity of the raw materials, altered...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Abstract Polymers offer a wide range of choices for medical applications because of their versatility in properties and processing. This article provides an overview of polymeric materials and the characteristics that make them a unique class of materials. It describes the ways to classify...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract This article explains how ceramic powders are made. It begins by briefly describing the raw materials used in structural clay products, whitewares, refractories, and advanced ceramics. It then examines various additives that promote uniformity at different stages of the process. After...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract The large majority of the commercially important glasses are processed from a carefully calculated batch of raw materials that is then melted in special furnaces. Providing an introduction to melting practices of glass production, this article focuses on various finishing methods of...