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polymer extrusion

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... and polymer lubricants. The article describes several procedures for extruding specific steel parts such as tubular parts and stepped shafts. It lists problems such as tool breakage and galling or scoring of tools and explains cold extrusion of aluminum, copper, and nickel alloy parts. The article...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... compounding and tend to produce a less accurate extrusion. When thermoplastic polymers are extruded, it is necessary to cool the extrudate below its melting temperature ( T m ) or glass-transition temperature ( T g ) to impart dimensional stability. This cooling can often be done by immersion in a tank of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article begins with a general review of the effects of changes in stress state on processing of materials. It describes the fundamentals of hydrostatic extrusion and reviews the various issues and benefits associated with hydrostatic extrusion. The article discusses the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... biocompatibility, but it is becoming a supply chain concern for many device manufacturers. Processing of polymers during polymerization and downstream processes such as extrusion and injection molding can expose the material to conditions such as shear and temperature. Depending on the tolerance and process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Abstract Polymers offer a wide range of choices for medical applications because of their versatility in properties and processing. This article provides an overview of polymeric materials and the characteristics that make them a unique class of materials. It describes the ways to classify...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... final configuration and to establishing appropriate applications of the material (such as polymeric foams as insulating structures). In thermoplastic processing, heat energy is either transferred or exchanged in the material to effect sufficient fluidity such that the polymer can be shaped and/or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003848
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... polymerization of chloroprene (2-chloro-1,3-butadiene). When chloroprene undergoes 1,2 addition, the resulting polymer has some allylic chlorine. The allylic chlorine is labile and is considered to be the cure site, that is, the point of cross linking or vulcanization. Neoprene has a structure very similar to NR...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... primarily as thin films in capacitors and dielectric coatings; numerous polymer modifications exist Film coatings Phenoxies Tough, rigid, high-impact plastic; useful for electronic applications below about 80 °C (175 °F) Blow moldings, extrusions, injection moldings, film Polyallomers...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... useful life of the specimen or the service item. These prefailure manifestations include crazes, cracks, and stress whitening. Crazes appear to be similar to cracks when viewed by the naked eye, but they differ in that the gap between the faces is bridged by fibers of drawn polymeric material. They are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... magnification are then described. Typical microscopic features observed on structural metals are presented subsequently, followed by a brief discussion on fatigue in polymers and polymer-matrix composites. engineering components fatigue fracture fractography metals polymer-matrix composites polymers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... intermediate preheating temperature and then reapplying the coating once the operating temperature is reached ( Ref 22 ). Room temperature application is possible if temporary bonding is provided. Thus, slurries of glass powder and a polymeric binder may be made up ( Ref 35 ) in organic solvents or in a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006038
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... downstream of metering runs and control valves can cause a drop of up to 25 °C (50 °F) in the flowing gas. Fig. 12 Gas pipeline compressor station All coating systems are semipermeable membranes and will pass both water and oxygen molecules. Water movement will occur both through the polymeric...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... temperature range. Polyvinylidene fluoride resin is produced by emulsion or suspension polymerization of vinylidene fluoride. It can be extruded and injection molded on typical polyvinyl chloride (PVC) machines. It is available as dry powder, pellets, and as a solvent-base dispersion for coating...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... materials, including ferrous alloys, nonferrous alloys, ceramics, cermets and cemented carbides, engineering plastics, polymer-matrix composites, metal-matrix composites, ceramic-matrix and carbon-carbon composites, and reviews their general property characteristics and applications. It describes the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... situations, the bodies tend to be large and contact in a well-defined location in a controlled way, unlike erosion where the eroding particles are small and interact randomly with the target surface. This article describes some generic features and modes of impact wear of metals, ceramics, and polymers. It...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... In the mid-1970s, Japanese researchers produced SiC fibers by controlled pyrolysis of silicon-based polymeric precursors ( Ref 24 , 25 ). Their steps were to: Characterize the polymer (yield, molecular weight, purity, etc.) Melt spin the polymer into a precursor fiber Cure the precursor...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... phthalate can be prepared by the direct esterification of allyl alcohol and phthalic anhydride ( Fig. 1 ) and then partially polymerized to a fusible resin or prepolymer by being heated with a free-radical initiator. This diallyl phthalate prepolymer, combined with a free-radical initiator and various...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... contamination and material variations from sample to sample. Polymeric materials that possess similar solubility parameters can be joined using solvent or fusion welding. Interdiffusion of polymer chains plays a major role in achieving intrinsic adhesion ( Ref 15 ) and in promoting chain diffusion, either by...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... portion predominates. Wet techniques are those in which the inorganic powders are in an aqueous, polymeric, or organic solvent carrier. Dry pressing is the process by which ceramic powders are consolidated inside a cavity into a predetermined shape through the use of applied pressure acting in a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... detail in the literature ( Ref 1 ). Silica is often used in polymerization catalysts, such as 0.1% chromium oxide impregnated on silica, for the formation of polyethylene. Most silicas used in catalysis are synthetic. Preparation conditions have a dramatic influence on the properties of the silica that...