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polarized light microscopy

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... include bright-field illumination, dark-field illumination, polarized-light microscopy, interference and contrast microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. The article also provides a discussion of sample preparation materials such as dyes, etchants, and stains for the analysis of composite materials using...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... to view a specimen. These consist of epi-bright-field illumination, epi-dark-field illumination, epi-polarized light, and epi-fluorescence. The article also provides information on transmitted light microscopy. References References 1. Mallick P.K. , Fiber-Reinforced Composites, Materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., and polishing as well as ceramographic etching. It discusses common imaging approaches, including scanning electron microscopy and thin-section polarized light techniques, a type of optical microscopy. The article also addresses microstructural classification, examining detailed micrographs from samples...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... include reflected light microscopy using polarized light, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays, and wavelength dispersive analysis of X-rays. Macroscopic property characterization involves measurement of porosity, density, and surface area...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Illumination Methods Light Optical Images versus Scanning Electron Microscopy Images of Microstructure Summary Bright-Field Illumination Polarized Light Dark-Field Illumination Nomarski Differential Interference Contrast Comparison of Imaging Modes Polarized Light versus Bright Field...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... identification can now be done on as-polished samples with electron probe microanalysis and/or scanning Auger microscopy. The microstructures of unalloyed uranium and single-phase uranium alloys are most frequently characterized with polarized light microscopy. Although such features as grain and twin...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... polarized light reveals the packet size by contrast differences. Tint etched in 10% Na 2 S 2 O 5 . 100× Fig. 35 Principles of phase contrast microscopy Fig. 16 Relationship between the resolution possible with an incident-light microscope and the numerical aperture of the objective lens...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009082
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., or density measurements, these analytical methods provide little, if any, information on the origin and microstructure of the crystallinity in the composite. To determine the morphology of thermoplastic-matrix composites, transmitted polarized-light microscopy can be used very effectively...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...-matrix composite. Transmitted polarized light, full wave plate, 20× objective Abstract Abstract This article describes methods for analyzing impact-damaged composites in the aircraft industry. These include C-scan and x-radiography methods and optical microscopy. The article reviews brittle...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the methods and equipments involved in the preparation of specimens for examination by light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis for microindentation hardness testing, and for quantification of microstructural...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009076
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., 1987 6. Viney C. , Transmitted Polarized Light Microscopy , McCrone Research Institute , Chicago, IL , 1990 7. Bloss F.D. , An Introduction to the Methods of Optical Crystallography , Saunders College Publishers , Philadelphia, PA , 1989 8. Kerr P.F...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article describes the methods and equipments involved in the preparation of specimens for examination by light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis for microindentation hardness testing, and for quantification of microstructural parameters...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... and the morphology of large second-phase particles. Specialized optical metallographic techniques, such as polarized light microscopy and interference microscopy, can add significantly to the information obtained in a microscopic investigation, and interference microscopy can be used to identify height differences...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... the digital image. High-quality, strain-free objectives are desirable for any polarized light microscopy, while non-strain-free objectives or objectives with a long working distance will compromise the polarized light image. Figure 28 provides comparative micrographs from the examination of a Ti-6Al-4V...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003749
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., interference contrast, polarized light) Physical etching Develops the microstructure through removal of surface atoms or lowering the grain surface potential Plasma etching High-frequency electromagnetic vibrations produce radicals in a gas mixture that react with the sample surface and cause its...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of the three Faraday effect geometries identified by the relative orientation of the incident polarized light transmitted compared to the magnetization direction. (a) Longitudinal Faraday effect: oblique incidence of polarized light transmitted through a material with magnetization in the plane of the sample...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... in the article, “Viewing the Specimen Using Reflected-Light Microscopy,” optical microscopy can be used to determine the fiber angles in composites made from unidirectional fiber prepreg materials. Also, it was shown that reflected polarized light can be used to further enhance fiber angle differences. Usually...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... composite part to be able to use all of the contrast techniques of transmitted-light microscopy. Figure 1 shows an area of a honeycomb-cored sandwich structure composite cross section that is viewed using transmitted polarized light. The 3k-70 plain weave carbon fibers are visible as a black mass...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... is approximately 0.2 μm. However, smaller features—as small as approximately 0.05 μm—can be detected by image contrast enhancement with polarized light, interference contrast, or dark-field illuminations. Fig. 1 Light microscopy image showing the surface texture of stainless steel tubing for needles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... handling of the microscopic sample. Polished cross-sectional mounts can be examined with a variety of microscopy techniques, including polarized light, bright- and dark-field illumination, and epi-fluorescence. The damage characteristics depend on many factors, including the type of lightning strike...