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polarized light

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... microscope in bright-field illumination. Courtesy of the Carl Zeiss Co. Fig. 12 As-cast pure orthorhombic bismuth in the as-polished condition viewed using polarized light shows mechanical twins. Magnification: 50× Fig. 13 Microstructure of Cd-20%Bi in the as-cast condition, unetched...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... A montage of a chamfer area of a honeycomb composite part made with carbon fabric skins. A highlighted area of a void in the structure is also shown. Fig. 15 Ply-count image showing bright-field background and polarized light center. A cross section of a glass fabric/unidirectional carbon fiber...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... include reflected light microscopy using polarized light, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays, and wavelength dispersive analysis of X-rays. Macroscopic property characterization involves measurement of porosity, density, and surface area...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... nodules in cast iron. (a) Bright-field illumination. (b) Differential interference-contrast illumination. (c) Crossed polarized light illumination. 2% nital. 400× Fig. 33 AF 1410 alloy steel. (a) Highly tempered lath martensite is difficult to study under bright-field illumination. (b) Crossed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... in water, then alcohol and dry. General structure 14 4–5 mL HBF 4 200 mL H 2 O Electrolytic: use stainless steel cathode; specimen is anode. Use minimum etching time and voltage (less than 40 s and 20 V dc respectively). When viewed with polarized light, grains with the same orientation are colored...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., and polishing as well as ceramographic etching. It discusses common imaging approaches, including scanning electron microscopy and thin-section polarized light techniques, a type of optical microscopy. The article also addresses microstructural classification, examining detailed micrographs from samples...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... include bright-field illumination, dark-field illumination, polarized-light microscopy, interference and contrast microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. The article also provides a discussion of sample preparation materials such as dyes, etchants, and stains for the analysis of composite materials using...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Fig. 1 Microcracks in a carbon fiber composite laminate due to thermal cycling. (a) Resin-rich region in the composite. Slightly uncrossed polarized light, 10× objective. (b) Resin-rich region containing a large void. Slightly uncrossed polarized light, 10× objective Fig. 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003752
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... tint etched with Beraha's CdS reagent. The microstructure shows large graphite nodules, ausferrite (blue and brown), and retained austenite (white) when viewed with polarized light plus sensitive tint. Fig. 41 As-cast Ni-Hard cast iron (Fe-2.98%C-0.64%Mn-0.85%Si-4.4%Ni-2.34%Cr) containing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Fig. 1 Honeycomb sandwich structure composite cross section (∼1 μm ultrathin section) showing differences in the constituents and resin intermingling. Transmitted crossed polarized light with a 530 nm compensator plate. This micrograph and the insets are expanded to 200× magnification. (A–C...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...) Improves grain structure contrast under polarized lighting and prevents specimens for staining and oxidizing 2 110–115 V anodization layer (purple-blue color in zirconium) Reveals intermetallic compounds, inclusions, and lighter element contamination in zirconium (bright field) 3 180 V anodization...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... . The thickness of the film is d. Source: Ref 8 Fig. 2 Linear and elliptical polarization. (a) If two linearly polarized light beams that are in phase are combined, the resultant light beam is linearly polarized. (b) If two linearly polarized light beams that are out of phase are combined...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... shown in Fig. 1 . (a) Micrograph showing the matrix strains in the composite after impact. The arrows indicate areas of strain birefringence in the matrix. Transmitted polarized light, full wave plate, 20× objective. (b) Hackle formation in the interlayer region. Transmitted polarized light, full wave...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... field Polarized light UC Small and angular or large and dendritic As-polished White/gray … Heat tinted Orange/red … Copper plated 1–2 min Discontinuous deposit … HNO 3 etched Black Black UN Angular, dendritic, or Chinese script As-polished Gray Dark gray Copper...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... and therefore the performance. The analysis of the composite structure is typically performed using bright-field illumination and low magnification. In some analyses, the use of slightly uncrossed polarized light can provide additional contrast. Depending on the information that is desired, the analysis may...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of the arrows shows the section plane. Fig. 2 Montage of the edge of the lightning strike zone that corresponds to section plane B in Fig. 1 . Slightly uncrossed polarized light, 10× objective (25× objective insets) Fig. 3 Cross section taken at the edge of the strike zone corresponding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009082
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... fiber composite that were exposed to different cooling rates. (a) Slow cooled. (b) Fast cooled followed by annealing. (c) Fast cooled. Transmitted polarized light, 100× objective Fig. 3 Matrix morphology differences of an engineering thermoplastic glass fiber composite that was exposed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... as in Fig. 55 , but graphite nodule was examined in crossed polarized light. Original magnification: 1000× Fig. 57 Flake graphite in as-cast gray iron examined in crossed polarized light. As-polished. Original magnification: 200× Fig. 58 Same as in Fig. 37 , but microstructure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
..., the more effective and uniform the etched surface. Single Step Etching Deposition of an Interference Layer Another approach that can be used in metallographic investigations takes advantage of several microscopy techniques. The three methods discussed here utilize polarized light in different...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... pattern; use stainless steel cathode, 25 V dc for 1–3 min (30s cycles) at 10 °C (50 °F); polarized light improves contrast dc, direct current. Source: Ref 1 Grades of vacuum hot-pressed beryllium Table 5 Grades of vacuum hot-pressed beryllium Chemical composition S-65B S-200F I...