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polarized light

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...-field illumination, dark-field illumination, polarized light illumination, or differential interference contract, generally by the Nomarski technique. This article concentrates on how to reveal microstructure properly to enable the proper identification of the phases and constituents and, if needed...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... include reflected light microscopy using polarized light, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays, and wavelength dispersive analysis of X-rays. Macroscopic property characterization involves measurement of porosity, density, and surface area...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... intergranular and to determine if the fracture part is specific to any phase or constituent present. Although such specimens can be examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), light microscopy is more efficient for such work, and certain information, such as the color or polarization response of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006662
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... incidence, single monolayers adsorbed on low-area surfaces (flat metal plates) can be detected. Figure 4 illustrates a typical external reflectance attachment. Because the component of the incident light polarized parallel to the surface (perpendicular to the plane of incidence) has a node at the surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... soaps plus inhibitors Lubrication and corrosion protection for running ropes and exposed gear MIL-H-6083 Hydraulic fluid, petroleum base, preservative Light petroleum hydraulic fluid with inhibitors As a preservative oil in aircraft hydraulic systems and shock-absorber struts VV-L-800...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006646
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... xdx e x − 1 where T is the temperature, and E R is the recoil energy of the free nucleus: (Eq 3) E R = E γ 2 2 Mc 2 where E γ is the energy of the γ-ray, M is the mass of the nucleus, and c is the velocity of light. Useful low- and high-temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... (Rayleigh) wave and ultrasonic polar scan techniques. electronic equipment pulse-echo method single-element transducer-based system surface wave technique transducers transmission method ultrasonic inspection ultrasonic polar scan technique THIS ARTICLE CONSIDERS the two primary methods...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... alloys, grain size can be revealed adequately in the as-polished condition using polarized light. There are aspects of structure, termed macrostructure, which can be observed with the unaided eye. Macrostructural examination is often a prelude to microstructural examination but also includes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... objective lenses and eyepieces ( Fig. 1 , 2 ). The minimum feature resolution is approximately 0.2 μm. However, smaller features—as small as approximately 0.05 μm—can be detected by image contrast enhancement with polarized light, interference contrast, or dark-field illuminations. Fig. 1 Light...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... transmission) that remains the same regardless of the direction or the polarization of transmitted light is said to be isotropic. A material for which the refractive index depends on the direction and polarization of light is anisotropic. An anisotropic material is said to be optically birefringent. Some...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article introduces the principles of Raman spectroscopy and the representative materials characterization applications to which Raman spectroscopy has been applied. A discussion on light-scattering fundamentals and a description of the experimental aspects of the technique are...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... applications, lighting, information display, electronic processing and electronic devices, optical and ophthalmic products, and communications equipment. architectural glass biomedical glass dental glass glass fibers lamp glass optical glass specialty glasses traditional glasses GLASS in its...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... 13 shows a further illustration of the effects of different lighting. In Fig. 13(a) , for which vertical illumination was used, the fatigue zone below the carburized case is clearly shown. In Fig. 13(b) , for which oblique spotlighting with crossed polarization was used, the fatigue zone is not...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... change the polarization state of the light, some sort of detector, and some calculation facilities. Although rudimentary forms of these requirements have been present throughout this century, the development of the photomultiplier, the laser, and the desktop computer have greatly enhanced the use of this...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... that requires a three-dimensional appearance. It uses low-angle illumination, so higher magnifications are limited. Polarized light is especially useful for analyzing optically anisotropic metals, such as beryllium, α-titanium, and zirconium. Differential interference contrast (DIC...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... cold rolled 50%, photographed with polarized light through a blue interference filter. Acetic-picral etchant (ASTM 127). Original magnification 100×. Courtesy of S.L. Couling Lüders lines, also called Lüders bands or stretcher strains, are commonly found in deep-drawn steel sheet. They are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... passivates in 0.5 M Na 2 SO 4 during anodic polarization. Fig. 12 Reinforcement-induced microcrevice corrosion. (a) In situ light micrograph of silicon/aluminum metal-matrix composite immersed in aerated 0.5 M Na 2 SO 4 at 30 °C (86 °F) in the open-circuit condition. Region of localized...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627082136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... the electromagnetic wave, that is, the interaction of the electric and magnetic fields with the conductivity, permittivity, and permeability of the material. Microwaves behave much like light waves in that they travel in straight lines until they are reflected, refracted, diffracted, or scattered...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... strongly piezoelectric, and rapid strides have been made in their development and use as actuator motors, as ultrasonic transducers, and for electromechanical sensing. Piezoelectrics (PLZT) also elicit wide interest as electrooptic materials for such applications as high-speed shutters, switches, and light...