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pointed punch piercing

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Also called punching or perforating, piercing (with a flat-end punch), is similar to blanking except that the punched-out (blanked) slug is the waste and the surrounding metal is the workpiece. (See “Piercing of Low-Carbon Steel” in this article.) In notching, the individual punch removes a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004040
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... gear in Fig. 5(d) . A billet of suitable size is forged to provide a pancake, which, in turn, is pierced and punched out in preparation for additional forging operations. At this point, alternative methods of finish forging can be employed, for example, saddle forging the pierced, punched-out pancake...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., dried soap or wax films (lubricant No. 8) are less effective than lubricants No. 5, 6, and 7. (b) Typical fillers are chalk, lithopone, white lead, talc, mica, zinc oxide, clay sulfur, and graphite. Blanking and piercing of aluminum alloy flat stock are ordinarily done in punch presses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... times the blank diameter in one blow ( Fig. 3b ). If the buckle point of the blank cannot be contained within a cone-shaped heading tool (punch), a sliding cone-shaped die cavity has to be used to support the blank ( Fig. 3c ). Otherwise, multiple blows are required to upset more than two-and-a-half...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... hole to around 3 to 1 for rigidity. The punch nose contour controls the metering of the lubricant during the process. A hemispherical nosed punch, although desirable from a load point of view, results in rapid depletion of the lubricant. A tapered punch nose with a 170° included angle is found to be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003980
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., however, a water spray is used as a coolant. Die lubrication is not widely used in the upsetting of steel. Because of the die action in upsetting, parts are less likely to stick than in hammer or press forging. In deep punching and piercing, however, sticking may be encountered, necessitating the use of...
Book Chapter

By Robert Bolin
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003982
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... these methods requires more time, more manpower, and a wide range of tooling. Handmade blanks also suffer from forging errors such as off-center punching and pierce defects or rags. While the initial investment is somewhat lower (most forge shops already have a press), in the long run, an automated ring...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.9781627081863
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... simulation is identical to that seen on the actual formed electrode. The final operation involves piercing the extruded slug with a splined punch. At this stage, the outside of the part is close to finish shape, and the punch is used to form the intricate cooling fins on the inside of the electrode...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.9781627081979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004036
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...) , the short, flat portion of flash extending outward from its junction with the forging is referred to as the flash land; the corresponding portion of the die is referred to as the flash saddle. The width of the saddle and the corresponding width of the land extend from the point at which the drafted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... composition and steel manufacture may be needed. The details of testing and quality evaluation may vary from producer to producer and should be a point of inquiry when forging stock is ordered. Should the designer require it, one or more special quality restrictions can be specified. These will bring into...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003987
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... it is preceded by other operations such as blanking, drawing, piercing, and bending. Coining is often the final operation in a progressive-die sequence, although blanking or trimming, or both, frequently follow coining. Development of Detail in the Workpiece . In coining dies, the prepared blank...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... or more of the punches ( Fig. 9 ). Fig. 9 Examples of multiple-ram forgings. Displacement of metal can take place from vertical, horizontal, and combined vertical and horizontal planes. Dimensions given in inches. Piercing holes in a forging at an angle to the normal direction of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003978
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... extending from one or both sides of the major diameter in shaftlike extensions. Simple pancake forgings, made by upsetting a length of stock. Finished parts made from these forgings include gears, wheels, and milling cutter and tubesheet blanks. Forged and pierced blanks, for subsequent conversion to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003975
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... precision forging punching safety precautions thermal fatigue trimming dies vertical press wear resistance DIE MATERIALS used for hot forging include hot-work tool steels (AISI H series), some alloy steels such as the AISI 4300 or 4100 series, and a small number of proprietary, lower-alloy...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... extrusion ingot, by piercing a solid extrusion ingot, or by extruding through a porthole die or bridge die. They also may be made by forming and welding sheet. Tube may be brought...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.9781627081764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... obtain and maintain ignition at the point where the oxygen jet strikes the surface of the work. The process finds greatest use in underwater cutting. When cutting oxidation-resistant metals, melting action occurs. The covering on the electrode acts as a flux; it functions in a manner similar to that...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... consolidates for initial melting of reactive and refractory metals. (d) Drip melting of vertically fed vacuum induction melted or conventionally melted electrodes. (e) Drip melting of horizontally and vertically fed materials for the production of alloys from feedstocks with very different melting points...