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point defects

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... tabulates the assorted structure types of metallurgical interest arranged according to Pearson symbol. It also provides information on crystal defects in all real crystals, explaining some significant ones, such as point defects, line defects, stacking faults, and twins. atom position crystal defects...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... 6 ) that form within the hcp zones (or possibly at the hcp-fcc boundaries). While early studies explored this avenue as a means of increasing the yield strength of cast CoCrMo alloys (by precipitation strengthening), studies indicated significant loss in ductility with aging, to the point that the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... crystallographic orientation or texture develops in deposited films. This texturing can lead to nonisotropic film properties in materials that do not have cubic crystal forms. Lattice defects are point defects in the lattice and the microstructures, such as dislocations, that arise from coalescence of point...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... This article provides a brief review of the terms and basic concepts associated with crystal structures. It also discusses some of the significant defects obstructing plastic flow in real crystals, namely point defects, line defects, stacking faults, twins, and cold work. Several tables in the article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005430
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract Diffusion is the process by which molecules, atoms, ions, point defects, or other particle types migrate from a region of higher concentration to one of lower concentration. This article focuses on the diffusivity data and modeling of lattice diffusion in solid-state materials...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005344
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... magnification: 7.5× “Hot tear” is often associated with shrinkage. In hot tears, rupture occurs through the material that has not fully solidified. These hot spots remain fluid longer, thus serving as a focal point for the concentration of contraction strains. Factors affecting hot tears include improper...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... film Probable causes: Effect of high temperature often applied to the reverse side of a steel plate from burning, welding, or fire Prevention: Ensure that all welding/burning is completed prior to painting. Fig. 23 Cracks that radiate from a point of impact Probable causes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... installations near hinge points. These objects are easily detected by x-ray radiography. They are usually not detrimental if they can be potted in place with a room-temperature adhesive. All the flaws or defects defined previously for metal-to-metal or honeycomb sandwich assemblies can occur during salvage...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article illustrates the simulation procedure of casting process. It describes important elements and points of the simulations. These include the setting of clear simulation objectives, selection of proper simulation code, hints in modeling of shape and phenomena, initial and...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... oxide has the opportunity to thicken, becoming so strong that there is the danger that any further advance of the front will be prevented. The breaking through of the meniscus at a weak point will then flood over the fixed, thickened oxide, sealing it into the casting as a major oxide lap defect ( Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... arising from nucleation, migration, and interaction of point and line defects, yet continuum crystal-plasticity slip measures do not reflect this irreversibility, nor do they employ any predictive means to account for it. Grain boundaries are treated largely as compatibility surfaces (mechanical...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005354
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract No-bake sand molds are based on curing of inorganic or organic binders with either gaseous catalysts or liquid catalysts. This article reviews the major aspects of no-bake sand bonding in terms of coremaking, molding methods, and sand processing. It discusses the points to be noted in...
Book Chapter

By P.S. Grant
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... process as a function of axial distance from the point of droplet atomization. The article concludes with a section on occurrence of macrosegregation and coarsening in spray cast preforms. coarsening gas atomization macrosegregation microsegregation spray casting probability density...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... point lower than bath temperature and dissolution of alloy that is solid at bath temperatures. chemical kinetics enthalpy Gibbs free energy nucleation phase diagram thermodynamics pre-solidification chemical thermodynamics TWO SUBJECTS that underlie all foundry processes are chemical...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... processes such as die casting and permanent mold casting. The article reviews the pattern features and mold production considerations used in pattern design, namely, parting line considerations, addition of gates and risers, core prints, and locating points. It discusses the pattern allowances for ensuring...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article discusses the application of amorphous and crystalline films through plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) from the view point of microelectronic device fabrication. It describes the various types of PECVD reactors and deposition techniques. Plasma enhancement...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... Abstract This article begins with a schematic illustration of a eutectic system in which the two components of the system have the same crystal structure. Eutectic systems form when alloying additions cause a lowering of the liquidus lines from both melting points of the pure elements. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... structure and properties when they are formulated into coatings, and how they are being used in coatings. The main discussion points are the differences between solventborne and waterborne technologies and some of the challenges in formulating and applying waterborne acrylic coatings. The article describes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... methods are very appealing because they are based on the culmination of our understanding of quantum mechanics and the electron-ion many-body problem. While the starting point for such calculations requires only the most basic knowledge of chemistry, physics, and crystalline and defect structures, the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... morphology and properties has yet to be examined in detail. Nondestructive evaluation plays an integral part in AM, particularly given that the effect of defects on part performance at this point is not thoroughly understood and tailoring of process variables can result in drastically varying material...