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pneumatic pressure vessel

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Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 3 Photograph of a pneumatic pressure vessel for a 75 mm (3 in.) Hopkinson bar test system More
Image
Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 4 Schematic of a pneumatic pressure vessel for a 75 mm (3 in.) Hopkinson bar test system. t , thickness; D , diameter; OD, outside diameter More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
...Abstract Abstract Triaxial Hopkinson techniques can be used to simultaneously subject a sample to axial and lateral compressions. The lateral compression may be applied through a pneumatic pressure vessel or dynamically using a special Hopkinson technique. This article reviews these two...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005352
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... interfering with production. In low-pressure casting, the furnace is not a closed pressure vessel. The temperature of the metal delivered by a pump is very close to that of the molten-metal bath, so superheating of the furnace is not required. Types of EM Pumps The types of EM molten-metal...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... ring can be replaced with a preheated vessel in less than 1 h. Oxygen, hydrogen, and, to some extent, nitrogen can be removed during vacuum melting. Carbon can also be lowered to produce some types of stainless steels. Pressures as low as 5 μm of mercury are used in these furnaces. The control...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003198
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., and the upper surface of the bed disappears. This state constitutes a disperse, dilute, or lean-phase fluidized bed with pneumatic transport of solids. The general types of fluidized beds are shown in Fig. 6 . The majority of beds used for heat treatment are of the aggregative or bubbling type. Fig. 6...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of a channel-type induction furnace showing the water-cooled copper induction coil, which is located inside of a 360° loop formed by the throat and channel portion of the molten metal vessel. It is the channel portion of the loop that serves as the secondary of the electrical circuit, in which the copper coil...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006034
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... be engaged and disengaged at any point in the pressing cycle. The clutch usually is pneumatically engaged with a spring release, and the brake is pneumatically released with a spring set, thereby providing full stopping ability in the event of loss of air pressure. An adjustable speed device normally...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
..., fabrication, and inspection of pressure vessels, piping, and tanks are provided by codes that have been developed by industry and/or regulatory agencies in various countries, as shown by the listing in Table 3 (see also the “Appendix: Industry Standards” at the conclusion of this article). In the United...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... preparation. Fig. 1 Weld spatter (splatter) Fig. 2 Removal of weld spatter/splatter using grinding wheel Appendix C of NACE standard SP0178, “Standard Recommended Practice—Fabrication Details, Surface Finish Requirements, and Proper Design Considerations for Tanks and Vessels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... of the vessel to reach a certain vacuum level dictated by the process requirements. A true vacuum is devoid of all molecules or matter—a condition that does not even exist in the deepest regions of outer space. The term vacuum used in the context of heat treating more correctly describes a partial pressure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... principle of pressure-actuated pouring furnaces and provides information on the effect of pouring magnesium-treated melts. cast iron melting channel induction furnace cokeless cupola cupola furnaces electric arc furnaces induction crucible furnace induction furnaces magnesium-treated melts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006310
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... of magnesium vapor into the iron when the vessel is tilted to orient the chamber below the column of iron in the vessel. The process operates under atmospheric pressure inside a steel enclosure to manage any molten metal spillage and fume generation. Rare earth materials and strong inoculants are required...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... to a more narrow range of special processes compared to the various casting manufacturing procedures used for light alloys (e.g., pressure-assisted casting methods). Figure 1 provides one possible classification of molding and casting processes described in this article, itemizing the aforementioned “more...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... oxides may not be self-limiting. Transient elements characterized by low pressure and high reactivity are reduced as a function of time at temperature; magnesium, sodium, calcium, and strontium, upon which mechanical properties directly or indirectly rely, are examples of elements that display...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... pressure exceeds atmospheric pressure. This pressure is known as gage pressure, to distinguish it from absolute pressure, which includes the pressure of the atmosphere. Diffusion When two or more closed vessels, originally containing different gases, are joined so that each gas has access to all...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003425
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... kitting. Autoclaving Other than considerations for higher temperatures (340–430 °C, or 645–805 °F) and pressures (700–2100 kPa, or 100–305 psi), laid-to-shape TPs can be consolidated in an autoclave using thermoset cure methods. The autoclave serves as a heated pressure vessel where vacuum, heatup...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., and control more cupola conditions. Today's (2008) melting operations are as highly computer controlled as any manufacturing operation. Virtually all control of the motors, valves, flow devices, dampers, and so on are computer controlled. All the various inputs of temperature, flow, pressures, status...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... and containing other elements, the next operation requires that these impurities (particularly phosphorus) be removed to the required degree. Integrated steel plants normally rely on pneumatically blown oxygen vessels to accomplish these reactions. In a typical BOF, high-velocity (supersonic) jets of pure oxygen...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005254
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., when compaction is complete, the flash can be transferred to open pressure vessels where molten metal is poured into the sprue cup. During this filling event, it is possible to pull a slight vacuum from the plenum in the bottom of the flashes, if so designed, to more effectively remove the liquid...