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ply-drops

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Published: 01 January 2001
Fig. 8 Detail of flexbeam ply drops More
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 6 Voids in the interlayer region and at the ply-drop in the interior of a tubular composite part. Bright-field illumination, 10× objective More
Image
Published: 01 January 2001
Fig. 3 Static and fatigue ply drop-off test specimen. (1) Bond fiberglass-epoxy tabs with epoxy film adhesive. (2) Specimen thickness shall not vary more than ±0.13 mm (0.005 in.). (3) Specimen longitudinal edges shall be parallel to 0.13 mm (0.005 in.). (4) Top end and bottom end surfaces More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009078
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... the analysis of various types of voids. It reviews techniques for analysis of voids at ply-drops, voids due to high fiber packing, and voids that occur in honeycomb core composites. The final section of the article discusses void documentation through the use of nondestructive inspection techniques and density...
Image
Published: 01 January 2001
Fig. 2 Longitudinal or transverse tensile static and fatigue specimens. (a) Ply drop-off specimen. (b) Plain specimen. (1) Bond glass-epoxy tabs with an epoxy film adhesive. (2) Specimen thickness shall not vary more than ±0.13 mm (0.005 in.) from nominal. (3) Specimen longitudinal edges shall More
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 2 Composite cross section showing many of the different facets that are usually investigated using reflected-light bright-field illumination. Shown in the cross section are voids (dark areas), ply terminations (i.e., ply drops), carbon fiber plies having different thicknesses, different More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003380
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... are the material and structural discontinuities that give rise to interlaminar stresses ( Fig. 1 ). Delaminations occur at stress-free edges due to a mismatch in properties of the individual layers, at ply drops (both internal and external) where thickness must be reduced, and at regions subjected to out-of-plane...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... section having prepreg ply terminations within the part is shown in Fig. 1 . In this figure, the number of prepreg plies and ply terminations can easily be observed, as well as how the adjacent plies accommodate the ply-drops. Where both ply terminations are found, the area is free of voids...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003462
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...-radiography, standard x-ray analysis can provide information regarding ply counts, ply orientations, and ply drop-offs. Foaming of resins or adhesives will also be apparent, as will water ingression into core details. The orientation, cell size, and web materials of honeycomb cores (particularly nonmetallic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... of a component is defined by the: Overall shape produced by the mold tool curvature Thickness in terms of the number of layers over the surface Ply outlines (drop offs) if the thickness is varying Orientation to suit the load paths For most lightweight components, the lay-up instructions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... to accurately define the ply. Typical ply information includes parent laminate name, lay-up sequence and step, material, fiber orientation rosette, stagger and drop-off indices, net or trimmed boundary, and holes or cutouts. Fig. 4 Draping simulation and flat pattern for an aircraft wheel cover Core...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... include measurement of deformation or buckling of critical elements. Fig. 2 Longitudinal or transverse tensile static and fatigue specimens. (a) Ply drop-off specimen. (b) Plain specimen. (1) Bond glass-epoxy tabs with an epoxy film adhesive. (2) Specimen thickness shall not vary more than ±0.13 mm...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003390
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... components, such as bolted or bonded joints, ply drop-offs, and stresses around cutouts. Optimization The goal of most design programs is to maximize strength or stiffness for a given set of loads while minimizing weight. This is an iterative process even for isotropic materials and is made more...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... balls, and broken fibers, and at ply drop- offs, overlaps, and splices. Nucleation occurs within the resin or at resin/fiber/particle interfaces. Water vapor, air, volatiles, and foreign particles can provide void nucleation sites in prepregs. Vacuum pressure sealed in honeycomb core can lower...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... the unrepaired part would have failed, due to the high concentration of load at the edges of the stiff repair. This is why gently tapered repairs are often performed. Softening of the edge of the repair is often performed by ply drop-offs and/or “pinking” the edges of the outermost repair plies. Available...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003408
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... as they are removed; however, material efficiencies will drop. Maximizes floor space Delivers best edge quality Fig. 6 Conveyorized single-ply cutting Fundamentals of conveyorized multiple-ply cutting ( Fig. 7 ) include: Piece identification requires an additional step. Off-line kitting...
Book Chapter

By Don O. Evans
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... consider are ply shapes, tow steering, dropping and adding tows, and surface geometry. By optimizing ply shapes, the designer can eliminate the need to hand lay a piece of the ply that cannot be laid by the machine. The designer can also take advantage of the ability of fiber placement to steer tows so...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003368
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... consolidation, as is illustrated by Fig. 3 . To a significant degree, the labor involved in lay-up of material for one part provides laid-up material for other parts as well. Current methods and strategies, however, tend to limit such approaches to constant thickness laminates. Without internal part ply-drops...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003378
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... advantage from the exceptional fiber directional properties while minimizing the effects of the low transverse properties. One obvious solution is to use the approach taken in the manufacture of plywood. Plywood consists of layers, or plies, of wood bonded together, with the wood grain in each ply...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...-reinforced polyester are applied over the damaged area and then cured. A distinct feature of the repair is the offsetting of the ply drop-offs around the edges of the patch. This is done to minimize the localization of edge peel strains that can occur with this type of repair. The consolidation of the repair...