1-20 of 50 Search Results for

ply termination

Follow your search
Access your saved searches in your account

Would you like to receive an alert when new items match your search?
Close Modal
Sort by
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... performance. This article describes the optical microscopy and bright-field illumination techniques involved in analyzing ply terminations, prepreg plies, splices, and fiber orientation to provide the insight necessary for optimizing composite structure and performance. bright-field illumination...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... 3 Basic co-cured 16-ply scarf joint design. Tension joint efficiency was 51%. The second point concerned the ends of the longest 0° patch ply. The high shear stress and peeling action known to exist at the end of the ply had to be resolved. Special ply termination tests were run on the 16...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003380
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Characterization Delamination Analysis Delamination Prediction Flexbeam Fatigue Life Prediction Skin/Stiffener Pull-off Strength and Life Helicopter composite rotor hubs contain tapered flexbeams with large numbers of ply terminations, or ply drops , to taper the beam thickness. These ply drops...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... areas), ply terminations (i.e., ply drops), carbon fiber plies having different thicknesses, different prepreg material combinations (glass fabric prepreg and carbon fiber prepreg), and the number of plies. Bright-field illumination, 5× objective Fig. 3 Composite part made from unidirectional...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009078
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of a composite part dictates to a large extent if voids will be found in a composite and where the voids will most likely exist. It is common for composite parts to be designed with prepreg plies terminated at locations throughout the thickness of the lay-up. The junctures of these ply-drops contain areas where...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003382
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... the thickness of the 90° plies and terminates at the 0° plies. Measurement of matrix cracks in controlled fatigue experiments suggests the crack density reaches a saturation state that can be described by the ply thickness and material properties ( Ref 5 , 6 7 ). The work of Dexter and Baker ( Ref 23...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... a flat plane of more than 20°. Complex contours can be laid up and individual tows of material terminated and added due to the steering and cutting capability of fiber- placement machines. The processes still require hand lay-up of peel ply, fabric plies, small doublers, and isolation fiberglass...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...× objective Fig. 15 Microcracks in the intraply region of an interlayer-toughened carbon fiber composite material that terminated at the interlayer region. Epi-fluorescence, 390–440 nm excitation, 25× objective Abstract Abstract This article describes the microcrack analysis of composite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003390
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... to the last ply. The termination criterion can be either the first occurrence of fiber failure in a ply or failure of a specified number of plies in any mode. Degradation factors are specified individually for Young's modulus, E 11 and E 22 ; shear modulus, G 12 ; and Poisson's ratio, ν 12...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., fabrication, and quality control personnel must all have agreed on a convention for interpreting ply orientation. The part surface that will be tooled, or, in the event of co-curing, the precured interface surface is the most common place to start. Figure 8 illustrates one possible orientation system...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... errors in placement cannot be easily remedied. The degree of tack is influenced by ambient temperature, relative humidity, and the age and resin content of the material. Tack affects the design by limiting the size of the individual ply that can be handled and the ability to place it on the part...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003458
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... and terminate at the ply boundaries. Crazing and heat damage are examples of matrix cracks. Local stiffness loss is attributed to intralaminar matrix cracks. Local loss of stiffness can easily be evaluated by using a degraded value of the matrix stiffness and strength properties of the individual ply effect...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002492
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
.... Tack affects the design by limiting the size of the individual ply that can be handled and the ability to place it in the part. Although templates can be used for positioning individual plies, tacky materials must be placed accurately the first time, whereas low-tack materials may shift prior...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002416
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... interface resemble a pair of wedges that begin at a ply crack (transverse shear crack) in the lower ply and terminate at a ply crack in the upper ply. In the right-hand figure, an assembly of delaminations is shown for four consecutive interfaces (one repeating group of plies). The wedge-shaped...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003416
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... are under tension, they can move or shift when there are cut ends in the part. It is possible to retain the wound wet fibers with tensioned circumferential fibers at each place that the fiber ends (such as a cut end or a ply drop-off). When the fibers are cut outboard of these positions, the fiber tension...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... Fig. 10 Effect of mean stress on fatigue life of [0°/45°/90°/−45°] 2s carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic T300-5208 Fig. 6 S-N curves for (a) various AS4-epoxy laminates and (b) glass-fiber polymer laminates at various ply orientations. Source: (a) Engineered Materials Handbook, Vol 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... a film surface as possible. The stress field near the termination of a bonded tab is significantly three-dimensional, and critical stresses tend to peak at this location. Much research has been done on minimizing peak stresses, but it is impossible to make general recommendations that are appropriate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... 11 Cross sections of interlayer-modified composite materials. (a) Cross section showing a middle ply at 90°. Bright-field illumination, 10× objective. (b) Cross section taken parallel to the fiber direction. Bright-field illumination, 10× objective Fig. 12 Ultrathin section of a particle...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... with a wall thickness of nominally 6 to 8 mm (0.24 to 0.31 in.), the reinforcement in the region of stay terminations can increase the thickness locally to 15 to 20 mm (0.59 to 0.79 in.). For both prepreg and wet preg laminates, the first layer is often a peel ply, either prepreg or dry fabric saturated...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... The interface pressure is simply: P = T R For simplicity, the unit length (into the paper) has been neglected and the winding applied as a 90° hoop ply. In reality, the pressure must be in pounds per square inch and winding tension in pounds times the number of strands per linear inch. Also...