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ply orientation

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... material Graphite-epoxy (a) 4.1–9.0 Cast ceramic 0.81 Tool steel 11.3 Iron (electroformed) 11.9 Nickel (electroformed) 12.6 High-temperature cast epoxy 19.8 Aluminum 23.2 Silicone rubber 81–360 (a) Varies as a function of ply orientation. Values shown represent...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... and process engineers, production planners, and tooling, fabrication, and quality control personnel must all have agreed on a convention for interpreting ply orientation. The part surface that will be tooled, or, in the event of co-curing, the precured interface surface is the most common place to...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003038
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... longitudinal to transverse orientation—even to the point of having a 100% transverse fiber continuous ply with only longitudinal stitch fibers. These materials are available from a number of suppliers employing various techniques to ensure fiber directional stability, ply integrity, and thickness and weight...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... is the most important characteristic of a future repair material. The ideal condition would be for the repair material to replace the original material ply for ply, with the same number and orientation. Otherwise the transition or interface between the undamaged material and the repair must have...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... Laminate stacking sequences can be easily described for composites composed of layers of the same material with equal ply thickness by simply listing the ply orientations from the top of the laminate to the bottom. Thus, the notation [0°/90°/0°] uniquely defines a three-layer laminate. The angle denotes...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003036
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... that the part does not bond onto the surface. For prototype work and resin-coated and sculptured high-density foam, a framework covered with a nonporous face sheet such as sheet metal, a precured ply, or a plaster model may be used. A large number of parts can be made on a plastic-resin-faced plaster...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003040
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... fiber volume fraction are required, the fabric can be designed based on the number of plies and the orientation of the yarns. The analytic relation for this analysis is: cos ( θ ) = M N ply A y / ( V f A c ) where N ply is the number of plies per bobbin...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., carbonization, graphitization (optional), surface treatments, application of sizings or finishes, and spooling. Stabilization is carried out at temperatures below 400 °C (750 °F) in various atmospheres. The fibers are often stressed during this stage of the process to improve the orientation of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... criteria require the detection of delaminations with a linear dimension larger than 6.4 mm (0.25 in.). Impact damage Loss of compressive strength under static load Ply gap Strength degradation depends on stacking order and location. For [0, 45, 90,–45] 2S laminate, strength is reduced 9% due to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.9781627081955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... winding. In lay-up, material that is usually in prepreg form is cut and laid up, layer by layer, to produce a laminate of the desired thickness, number of plies, and ply orientations. In filament winding, a fiber bundle or ribbon is impregnated with resin and wound upon a mandrel to produce a simple shape...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... 1 and are highly dependent on the matrix resin. Bidirectional reinforcement can be achieved by cross-plying unidirectional tapes or broad goods, and by using woven fabric reinforcement. Strength can be tailored to end-use requirements by directional placement of individual plies of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... orthotropic materials the thermoelastic response is not linearly proportional to the change in principal stress, but instead is a linear combination of this change. A further complication is that, even for the same composite prepreg, this linear combination will change depending on ply orientations and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... fabricated by other means, namely: Retaining the filaments in the proper position and orientation Transferring the load from filament to filament and ply to ply Protecting the filaments from abrasion (during winding and in the composite) Controlling electrical and chemical properties...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... cracks and delaminations depends on contacting surfaces. Commonly used synthetic defects such as flat bottom holes and single-ply Teflon inserts in composites do not have contacting surfaces and will not heat. (Teflon is a registered trademark of DuPont.) Likewise, fully open cracks and delaminations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... a key factor that provides fairly broad independence regarding part shape and orientation of the part surface relative to the laser beam. The fact that ultrasound is emitted by the part itself, however, has the drawback that too high laser power or energy could cause undesirable damage. Also...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... and 1312 : Carbon/phenolic shear specimen before and after testing. White lines highlight the interlaminar shear failure in Fig. 1312 . 25× and 10×. Fig. 1313 and 1314 : Carbon/phenolic compression specimen before and after testing. Load was applied parallel to the plane laminate. Note ply...