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ply orientation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...Abstract Abstract Analyzing the structure of composite materials is essential for understanding how the part will perform in service. Assessing fiber volume variations, void content, ply orientation variability, and foreign object inclusions helps in preventing degradation of composite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003462
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...; and verification of materials and processing methods. The article discusses the determination of fiber, matrix, and void volume fractions and verification of ply lay-up and orientation. A review of composites processing parameters; fractography and surface analysis; and mechanical testing and stress analysis...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., fabrication, and quality control personnel must all have agreed on a convention for interpreting ply orientation. The part surface that will be tooled, or, in the event of co-curing, the precured interface surface is the most common place to start. Figure 8 illustrates one possible orientation system...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Prepreg Form Placement Tolerance Application Suitability Technique Characteristics and Applications Technique Description Component Properties Design Guidelines Outlook Lay-Up Definition Ply-Kit Cutting Lay-Up Debulking Preparation for Curing Ply Orientation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Draping simulation and flat pattern for an aircraft wheel cover Fig. 5 Core sample results Fig. 6 Draping simulation to evaluate ply producibility for an aircraft cowling Fig. 8 Flat patterns as a function of fiber orientations Fig. 7 Splicing of a full-body ply...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003431
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... to the structural integrity. Ply orientation is verified and controlled with laser alignment equipment that guarantees accuracy and repeatability. Use of laser noninvasive verification processes greatly improves process efficiency and quality at the lay- up touch labor level. The next generation of composite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003378
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... to carry loads) after the loss of laminae stiffnesses associated with matrix-mode failure. For example, an angle-ply laminate (±θ) experiencing matrix- mode failure when subjected to an axial load will be unable to carry that load. However, any laminate having fibers oriented in three or more directions...
Book Chapter

By John E. Moalli
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... standpoint, it is critical to remember that the reference, zero-strain temperature is the curing temperature, not the ambient one. In laminated composites, the variation in ply orientation can cause thermally induced internal stresses to be quite large; ignoring these stresses and considering applied...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... identified before a repair is performed. Such details as material specifications, ply numbers and ply orientations, core ribbon direction, ply buildups and drop-offs, and numerous other details need to be understood before a repair commences. For aircraft, this type of information usually is available...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... within each ply of a laminate are denoted by an x 1 - x 2 axis system. Laminate stacking sequences can be easily described for composites composed of layers of the same material with equal ply thickness by simply listing the ply orientations from the top of the laminate to the bottom. Thus...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... of unidirectional tape oriented to the designer's choice. These tapes are available in the same widths and package sizes as unidirectional tape, with varying thickness. Up to four or five plies of tape, with each ply typically being 0.125 mm (0.005 in.), can be plied together in various orientations to yield...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... susceptibility of the cured composite ( Ref 3 , 5 ). In addition to the composite constituents, the lay-up and composite construction influences the microcracking response to applied mechanical loads and thermal cycles. The interlayer thickness and modulus, ply orientations, thickness of the ply layers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... property in the 0° to 90° fiber orientation, respectively. Fig. 10 Effect of balanced-angle ply construction on engineering mechanical constants. The Young's modulus and shear modulus of a laminate can be significantly higher if plies are oriented at both plus and minus an angle with respect...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... thickness, ply count, and orientation of fibers are determined by the size and shape of the tool as well as the static and dynamic loads that will be applied to the tool in service. A shape that is inherently self-supporting, such as an aircraft radome ( Fig. 3 ), can easily be designed with integrated...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Silicone rubber 81–360 (a) Varies as a function of ply orientation. Values shown represent typical parts. As shown in Table 3 , the gel temperature and the CTE of the mold and part must be known in order to calculate the dimensional correction required in the tool design. The gel...
Book Chapter

By Greg Kress
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003392
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... in fiber, fiber forms, ply orientation, matrix material, and laminate configuration will affect the results. Determining if the damage growth will lead to a catastrophic failure is the study of damage tolerance. Cyclic mechanical testing and analytical methods are used in damage tolerance calculations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009072
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... the composite thickness on an angle helps in determining ply orientations (i.e., fibers will become elongated). Abstract Abstract This article describes how composite specimens are sectioned, documented, and labeled during sample preparation. The mounting procedures for the specimen are summarized...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003390
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... effects (built-in finite-element model) Micromechanics: plot constants versus volume/weight fraction, fiber direction; multiple materials.Laminates: carpet plots; family studies; θ-laminates (variable angles); failure envelopes; strength and stiffness sensitivity studies (ply properties, orientation...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...Plate data Table 1 Plate data Plate number Material No. of layers Density, g/cm 3 V f Ply orientation 1 CFRP (a) 8 1.446 0.342 (0°, 90°, 0°, 90°) s (b) 2 CFRP 12 1.636 0.618 (0°,–60°, 60°, 0°,–60°, 60°) s 3 GFRP 8 1.813 0.451 (0°, 90°, 0°, 90...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003416
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... in a filament-wound composite serves the same functions as it does in composite structures fabricated by other means, namely: Retaining the filaments in the proper position and orientation Transferring the load from filament to filament and ply to ply Protecting the filaments from abrasion (during...