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plasma reactive ion etching

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Book Chapter

By Donald M. Mattox
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... such as CO or CH 3 . Energetic reactive ions produce etching of the surface by reacting with the substrate surface material and producing a volatile compound (“plasma etching”) (for example, SiCl 4 from bombardment of silicon with an energetic Cl-containing ion from a vapor such as CCl 4 ) ( Ref 17 , 18...
Book Chapter

By S.L. Rohde
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001288
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... the fundamentals of plasma formation and the interactions on the target surface. A comparison of reactive and nonreactive sputtering is also provided. The article concludes with a discussion on the several methods of process control and the applications of sputtered films. diode sputtering glow discharge...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001291
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., or macroparticles. Macroparticle formation and the approaches used for removal are described in Ref 1 , 2 , and 3 . Due to the ion charge state, vapor produced by vacuum arc techniques is typically more reactive than that produced using evaporative or sputter techniques. This increased reactivity can lead...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... the article “Vacuum Deposition, Reactive Evaporation, and Gas Evaporation” in this Volume). The plasma environment “activates” reactive species, making them more chemically reactive. Condensation and Nucleation Atoms that impinge on a surface in a vacuum environment either are reflected immediately...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...” in this article), or postdeposition heat treatments in oxygen ( Ref 24 ). In some cases, the state of reaction can be increased by concurrent bombardment with a reactive species from a plasma (activated reactive ion plating) ( Ref 25 ) or an ion source (reactive ion beam assisted deposition). For example, SiO...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...., 11.56 eV for excitation and 15.8 eV for ionization of argon) ( Ref 10 ). The inelastic collisions between these energetic electrons and gas molecules generate highly reactive species such as excited neutrals, free radicals, and ions, as well as more electrons. By this mechanism, the energy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... plasma treatment, the most effective method for improving the bonding of materials to fluoropolymers has been to etch the surface with a material commonly referred to as sodium etch. The process consists of brief immersion of the component to be bonded in a solution of sodium naphthalene...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... specialized vacuum equipment. Chemical vapor deposition is performed when gas phase chemical species are energetically manipulated to condense on the substrate and form a coating. Chemical vapor deposition may be performed using thermal or plasma-enhanced (PECVD) methods for creating the reactive gas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article discusses the basic principles of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), covering different instruments used for performing ICP-MS analysis. The instruments covered include the sample-introduction system, ICP ion source, mass analyzer, and ion detector...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003749
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... Of these methods, the classical electrochemical/chemical etching procedures are used more frequently. Physical etching methods, such as ion etching or thermal etching, are used primarily when other techniques fail. This article primarily discusses etching in conjunction with light microscopy, although polished...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... conversion coatings, anodized coatings, plated coatings, organic coatings, and plasma-sprayed coatings. aluminum-beryllium composites beryllium beryllium carbide plated coatings organic coatings chemical conversion coatings halides sulfate nitrate ions electrolyte fluids chemical environment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... covers the operating principles, applications, advantages, and disadvantages of optical emission spectroscopy (OES), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), X-ray spectroscopy, and ion chromatography (IC). In addition, information on combustion analysis and inert gas fusion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... and reactive or ion beam etching. vapor-phase process vapor-surface interaction hetereogeneous process homogenous reaction chemical vapor deposition numerical simulation molecular modeling multiscale simulation sputtering deposition ion beam etching VAPOR-PHASE PROCESSES (VPP) involve...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006269
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... plasma nitriding, and ion implantation ( Ref 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 , 41 , 42 ). The process is typically carried out in pure nitrogen or a mixture of nitrogen with hydrogen or ammonia. The presence of hydrogen not only affects the composition of the active species of the atmosphere but also alters...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... probe X-ray microanalysis inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy ion-scattering spectroscopy material characterization microanalysis powders quantitative analysis scanning electron microscopy surface analysis X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy X-ray powder diffraction BULK...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... In addition, the ILD, which traditionally had been SiO 2 , would need to be replaced by low-dielectric-constant materials. Copper was first introduced in 1999 by IBM Corporation, using a novel patterning technique called damascene or inlaid copper. Unlike aluminum, copper is not easily plasma etched...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002494
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... of process and equipment modifications to avoid such problems during plasma nitriding. Reference 12 discusses the effect of part geometry on the growth of the nitride layer during ion nitriding and how coating uniformity can be improved for grooved surfaces. As in electroplating, decreasing the aspect...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... for the ion source part of the ion column vary depending on source type, with ultrahigh vacuum required for gas field ion sources, high vacuum for liquid metal ion sources, and medium vacuum for plasma sources. It is typical for the sample chamber to be 1 × 10 6 torr or better (lower pressure), but some...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005672
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... plasma treatment, a batch process completed under partial vacuum with a gas other than air. Gas plasma is an extremely reactive ionized gas that breaks molecular bonds on polymer surfaces, creating free radicals that bond with reactive species to form high-polarity functional groups. This reaction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... and oxidation resistance through the use of polishing, buffing, and wire brushing operations. The article also covers a wide range of surface modification and coating processes, including ion implantation, diffusion, chemical and physical vapor deposition, plating, anodizing, and chemical conversion coatings...