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plasma melting

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005205
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Plasma melting is a material-processing technique in which the heat of thermal plasma is used to melt a material. This article discusses two typical design principles of plasma torches in the transferred mode: the tungsten tip design and the hollow copper electrode design. It describes...
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 10 Cold crucible plasma melting. (a) Melting, pouring, and superheating for powder atomization. (b) Industrial-sized plasma cold crucible casting furnace with 650 kW torch power More
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Published: 12 September 2022
Fig. 2 Schematics of various atomization processes. (a) Plasma-melting inert gas atomization. (b) Electrode induction-melting inert gas atomization. (c) Centrifugal atomization. Adapted from Ref 8 More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 24 Differential interference contrast light micrograph of as-cast plasma-melted tantalum showing a triple-point structure with Ta 2 O 5 inclusions and TaN needles. Chemically polished (solution A, Table 2 ) for ∼90 s and etched (solution B, Table 2 ) for ∼30 s. Source: Ref 2 More
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 8 Plasma cold hearth melting. (a) Concept. (b) Configuration of system for recycling scrap More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 12 September 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23A.a0006907
EISBN: 978-1-62708-392-8
... optimization was tried to optimize process parameters ( Ref 7 ). Figure 2(a) shows a schematic of plasma-melting inert gas atomization (PIGA) ( Ref 8 ). Metals are melted by a plasma torch on the water-cooled copper hearth, and the melts are guided to the nozzle. The continuous melts then flow downward...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... Abstract Plasma arc welding (PAW) can be defined as a gas-shielded arc welding process where the coalescence of metals is achieved via the heat transferred by an arc that is created between a tungsten electrode and a workpiece. This article discusses the melt-in mode and the keyhole mode...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005582
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... uses three current modes: microplasma (melt-in mode), medium-current plasma (melt-in mode), and keyhole plasma (keyhole mode). This categorization is primarily based on the level of welding current. The microplasma mode is usually defined in the current range from 0.1 to 15 A. The medium-current plasma...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005598
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... as by the cathode heating of its own arc, and by resistance heating along the wire extension. Therefore, the melting and deposition rates of the wire are higher than the rates achieved by heating with either arc alone. Metal transfer is governed not only by plasma streaming but also by arc forces between...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... by the constricted plasma arc, as well as by the cathode heating of its own arc, and by resistance heating along the wire extension. Therefore, the melting and deposition rates of the wire are higher than the rates achieved by heating with either arc alone. Metal transfer is governed not only by plasma streaming...
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Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 9 Early version of an experimental plasma cupola used to confirm the concept of plasma heating as a melting technology More
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 8 Early version of an experimental plasma cupola used to confirm the concept of plasma heating as a melting technology More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005718
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
..., relatively massive particulates are ted onto a surface in the form of liquid droplets or semimolten or solid particles. Coating feedstock materials usually come in the form of powder, wires, or rods. Feedstocks are generally heated to their melting point by a plasma jet, electric arc, or flame. The molten...
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Published: 30 June 2023
Fig. 3 Gas atomization equipment diagrams illustrating (a) top-pour vacuum induction melt gas atomization, (b) electrode induction melt gas atomization, (c) and plasma atomization. Source: Carpenter Additive More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005706
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... or liquid feedstock is fed into the plasma stream and is accelerated toward the workpiece by the plasma jet. Plasma temperatures in the powder heating region for most plasma guns range from approximately 6000 to 15,000 °C (11,000 to 27,000 °F), significantly above the melting point of any known material...
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Published: 30 June 2023
atomized. (d) Plasma rotating electrode. (e) Closeup of electrode induction melt inert gas atomized Ti-6Al-4V alloy. (f) Macrophotographs of different powders showing variance in angle of repose and clumping. Source: Carpenter Additive More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005745
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... of the thermal spray torch can be a plasma, combustion flame, or combustion exhaust, as in the high-velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) process. The technique is chosen on the basis of the polymer-melting characteristics. A simple combustion torch is well suited for low-melting-point polymers with a large processing window...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005900
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... be established on a real industrial scale. New melting and refining processes such as vacuum arc remelting (VAR), electron beam melting (EBM), plasma melting, electroslag remelting (ESR), and vacuum degassing of steel were developed in parallel. Vacuum degassing became part of the secondary metallurgy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0007021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... of furnace melting mechanisms include: Induction melting Plasma arc cold hearth Water-cooled copper induction skull melting Contactless electrode induction melting Vacuum induction melt inert gas atomization (VIGA, Fig. 3a ) can produce the highest- quality or cleanest melt...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... materials. The article provides a discussion on the control tests for cupola, including the chill test and mechanical test. It concludes with information on specialized cupolas such as the cokeless cupola and the plasma-fired cupola. casting machines cupola equipment high-iron-tonnage operation...