1-20 of 41 Search Results for

plasma cold hearth melting

Follow your search
Access your saved searches in your account

Would you like to receive an alert when new items match your search?
Close Modal
Sort by
Image
Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 8 Plasma cold hearth melting. (a) Concept. (b) Configuration of system for recycling scrap More
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005205
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... hearth melting, and plasma casting. plasma melting furnaces plasma melting tungsten tip design copper electrode design plasma arc remelting plasma cold hearth melting plasma casting PLASMA MELTING is a material-processing technique in which the heat of a thermal plasma is used to melt...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in the copper by the induced current. The coil is firmly supported so it does not change shape under the influence of the field, and a refractory lining protects it from physically contacting the molten bath. Coreless furnaces allow cold-charge melting, and refining may be carried out by adding refining...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... are suspended vertically from hangers attached to the removable top of the furnace, or they are placed on the hearth in the base. Adequate head room and a vertical hoist are required. These furnaces are cooled in the same way as bottom-loading units. Fig. 2 Vertical top-loading cold-wall vacuum furnace...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of the gamma aluminides with particular reference to production scaleable techniques, including vacuum arc and cold-hearth melting, isothermal forging, conventional hot forging, and extrusion. The selection and design of manufacturing methods, in the context of processing-cost trade-offs for gamma titanium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005957
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... of these parts to a minimum. The furnaces used in the heat treating process can be classified in several different ways: mode of operation, application, level of mechanization, type of heating method, materials-handling system, type of energy used, and type of hearth. One of the popular methods...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... methods of steel. These methods include direct-current plasma nitriding, pulsed-current plasma nitriding, and active-screen plasma nitriding. The article reviews cold-walled and hot-walled furnaces used for plasma nitriding. It provides information on the importance of controlling three process parameters...
Book Chapter

By G. Keough
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... in titanium primary melting. Recently, much of the melting of titanium sponge has been converted to plasma cold hearth (PCH) melting. Also, some of the largest rectangular ingots produced for rolling into sheet are now made on large multimegawatt electron beam (EB) furnaces. The total tonnage of material...
Book Chapter

By John C. Bittence
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Substantial amounts of otherwise lost aluminum are recovered from mixed processing scrap by sweat melting. This selective process involves melting the scrap in a hearth with a sloped bottom, exploiting the melt temperature differences of the metals present. The scrap is melted, drained, and collected...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... by direct arcing as well as through radiation from the molten pool of metal collecting in the hearth. Burned or calcined lime as the flux is added toward the end of the melting of the first load of scrap charge. The oxidizing period begins from the time the molten metal forms until the entire charge...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... of specialized cupolas such as cokeless cupola and plasma-fired cupola. Melting in iron foundries is a major application of induction furnaces. The article describes the operations of two induction furnaces: the channel induction furnace and the induction crucible furnace. It explains the teapot principle...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001080
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... Practice Titanium sponge is most commonly double vacuum-arc remelted with recycled scrap material and alloying elements to produce titanium alloy ingot. Electron beam and plasma cold-hearth melting are relatively new melting practices designed to minimize internal ingot defects. Longer dwell times...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... in the United States. Some other processes, such as the open-hearth furnace, are still practiced in a few countries to produce special steels. Primary melt refinement also includes the uses of converters, which are furnaces in which oxygen is blown through a bath of molten metal, oxidizing the impurities...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0007021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... of furnace melting mechanisms include: Induction melting Plasma arc cold hearth Water-cooled copper induction skull melting Contactless electrode induction melting Vacuum induction melt inert gas atomization (VIGA, Fig. 3a ) can produce the highest- quality or cleanest melt...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001118
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... (125 tons) of metal per production cycle. This requires not only a high melt rate in large melt furnaces, but also a minimal charge time. The present rectangular open hearth furnace construction is practically limited in size to about a 30 m 2 (320 ft 2 ) bath area. Cylindrical furnace construction...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005202
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of the molten pool and solidifying before they can be melted and homogenized in the solidifying ingot. An alternate to VAR is cold hearth melting. The electrodes for making titanium ingots are compacted aggregates (compact or briquettes) of sponge and alloy elements, including both master melt and elemental...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... essentially of a metal shell lined with refractories. This lining forms a melting chamber, the hearth of which is bowl shaped. Three carbon or graphite electrodes carry the current into the furnace. Steel, either solid or molten, is the common conductor for the current flowing between the electrodes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005958
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... in the treatment of high-speed (M and T series), cold-work (A and D series), and hot-work (H series) tool steels. The plasma nitriding process is a vacuum application (pressures from 0.1 to 1 kPa) that uses a glow discharge (applied voltages up to 1000 V) to provide reactive nitriding species such as nitrogen...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., carbon and hardness gradients, and process procedures of different types of case hardening methods: carburizing (gas, pack, liquid, vacuum, and plasma), nitriding (gas, liquid, plasma), carbonitriding, cyaniding and ferritic nitrocarburizing. An accurate and repeatable method of measuring case depth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... by Auwarter in 1952 and Brinsmaid et al. in 1953. In 1971, Heitmann used reactive evaporation to deposit oxide films by evaporating the film material through a plasma of the reactive gas, and this technique is now generally called activated reactive evaporation. With this method, either a gas, such as oxygen...