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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005205
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... hearth melting, and plasma casting. plasma melting furnaces plasma melting tungsten tip design copper electrode design plasma arc remelting plasma cold hearth melting plasma casting PLASMA MELTING is a material-processing technique in which the heat of a thermal plasma is used to melt...
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 24 Differential interference contrast light micrograph of as-cast plasma-melted tantalum showing a triple-point structure with Ta 2 O 5 inclusions and TaN needles. Chemically polished (solution A, Table 2 ) for ∼90 s and etched (solution B, Table 2 ) for ∼30 s. Source: Ref 2 More
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 10 Cold crucible plasma melting. (a) Melting, pouring, and superheating for powder atomization. (b) Industrial-sized plasma cold crucible casting furnace with 650 kW torch power More
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Published: 31 December 2017
Fig. 2 Microstructures of materials used for wear-protection applications. (a) Hot work tool steel X40CrMoV5-1 in the quenched and tempered condition. (b) NiCrBSi alloy processed by plasma-transferred arc welding. (c) G-X500Cr30 alloy in the plasma-transferred-arc-welded condition. (d More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005740
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... by European and Asian manufacturers ( Fig. 6 ) ( Ref 14 ). Fig. 6 Outside spray-coated cast iron liner Piston Rings—Reduction of Oil Consumption Molybdenum is thermally spray coated onto the part sliding on the cylinder bore surface. Although plasma spraying, flame spraying, and high-velocity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005745
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... arc and plasma spray and HVOF techniques have been successfully used to fill in these voids with appropriate metal. Remachining of the surface completes the salvage. This technique has been used on large machine tool castings, diesel engine block castings, large castings for the process industries...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Molten salt baths are anhydrous, fused chemical baths used at elevated temperatures for a variety of industrial cleaning applications. This article discusses their applications in paint stripping, polymer removal, casting cleaning, glass removal, and plasma/flame spray removal...
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Published: 31 December 2017
Fig. 13 Surface roughness of G3500 gray cast iron samples nitrocarburized at 570 °C (1060 °F) for 4 h using plasma (50% nitrogen, 2% methane, and 48% hydrogen) and one-step gas ( K N = 3.5 and K C = 0.24) methods. Adapted from Ref 9 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005743
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
..., suction roll, center press rolls, yankee dryer rolls, calendar rolls, doctor/scalping blades, and cutting equipment. paper machine components paper manufacturing plasma spraying pulping thermal spray coating tungsten carbide PAPER IS AN INTEGRAL PART of our daily lives, with applications...
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Published: 31 December 2017
Fig. 12 Scanning electron microscopy surface images of G3500 gray cast iron samples nitrocarburized at 570 °C (1060 °F) for 4 h using (a) plasma (50% nitrogen, 2% methane, and 48% hydrogen) and (b) one-step gas ( K N = 3.5 and K C = 0.24) methods. Adapted from Ref 11 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005728
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... coating deformation.) Figures 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 show typical grain sizes for wrought, cast, and forged materials. ( Figure 5 shows recrystallized grains formed on the surface of a part that has undergone surface deformations such as grinding.) Figure 6 shows grain size typical of plasma spray...
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Published: 31 December 2017
Fig. 3 Micrograph and hardness profile in cast cut 1 (0.60 wt% C, 1.45 wt% Mn, 0.60 wt% Si, 1.50 wt% Cr, 0.25 wt% Ni, 0.40 wt% Cu, 0.10 wt% Al) stamping die material after plasma nitriding at 520 °C (970 °F) for 15 h in a mixture of 25% nitrogen and 75% hydrogen. Surface hardness: 874 HV1 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005742
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
..., multilayered cermet-ceramic, or continuous graded coatings HVOF, high-velocity oxyfuel; YSZ, yttria-stabilized zirconia; APS, air plasma sprayed It is important to review the many technical references that give a much more detailed description and overview of these applications. Continuous Casting...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... cutoff, squaring, and trimming operations, they are also used as parts of large fixtures for cutting cast and rolled metals. Pattern/follower wheel-shaped cutting machines or pantographs are used for the plasma arc cutting of relatively small, simple shapes. A scale model of the desired piece is held...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... materials. The article provides a discussion on the control tests for cupola, including the chill test and mechanical test. It concludes with information on specialized cupolas such as the cokeless cupola and the plasma-fired cupola. casting machines cupola equipment high-iron-tonnage operation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... in cold-worked material 60 g KOH 100 mL H 2 O Electrolytic 1–3 V, 3–5 s Reveals ferrite (blue) and sigma (red-brown); austenite not attacked Cobalt alloys 10 g(NH 4 )S 2 O 8 (a) 90 mL H 2 O Electrolytic 3–5 V, 5–10 s Castings; not effective for wrought/forged material 100 mL HCL 20 mL 3% H...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Ion Nitriding Applications Various alloy steel and cast iron wear components, including gears, crankshafts, cylinder liners, and pistons, are excellent candidates for the plasma nitriding process. In general, case depth and white-layer composition should be selected for the anticipated operating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005718
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
.... The article summarizes the essential equipment components and necessary controls. The various thermal spray processes are conventional flame spray, detonation gun, high-velocity oxyfuel spray, electric arc spray, and plasma arc spray. Other processes, such as cold spray, underwater plasma arc spray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001484
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... Abstract Plasma arc cutting (PAC) is an erosion process that utilizes a constricted arc in the form of a high-velocity jet of ionized gas to melt and sever metal in a narrow, localized area. This article discusses the process description, equipment, gases, operating sequence, process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005706
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... spray, wire- or rod-fed flame spray, electric arc spray, plasma arc spray, vacuum plasma spray, high-velocity oxyfuel spray, detonation gun deposition, and cold spray, and their advantages. It provides details on the microstructural characteristics of thermal spray coatings. The article also presents...