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plane-strain tension testing

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... temperature. Two types of hot-tension tests are discussed in this article: the Gleeble test and the conventional isothermal hot-tension test. The major advantage of the hot-tension test is that its stress/strain state simulates the conditions that promote cracking in most industrial metalworking operations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., compression test, and bend test. It examines specialized tests including plane-strain compression test, partial-width indentation test, secondary-tension test, and ring compression test. The article explains that workability is determined by two main factors: the ability to deform without fracture and the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article describes the use of compression tests, namely, cylindrical compression, ring compression, and plane-strain compression tests at elevated temperatures. It discusses the effects of the temperature, strain rate, and deformation heating on metals during the cylindrical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... tests, such as the tension test, ring compression test, plane-strain compression test, bend test, indentation test, and forgeability test. It concludes with information on the role of the finite-element modeling software used in workability analysis. bend test bulk forming processes cracking...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-relaxation testing. Shear testing, torsion testing, and formability testing are also discussed. The discussion of tension testing includes information about stress-strain curves and the properties described by them. compression testing fatigue testing formability testing fracture testing hardness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... where σ ¯ denotes flow stress (under homogeneous frictionless conditions) and p av denotes the average pressure Homogeneous plane-strain compression Through-thickness true strain ε 3 Effective strain ( ε ¯ ) ε ¯   = − 2 ε 3 3 True stress σ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... case. At the other extreme, when α < − 1 2 , β becomes positive, and both σ 0 and σ z are tensile. When α = 0, σ z = 1 2 σ 0 , which is the stress state in plane strain. Figure 7 illustrates typical changes in σ 0 and σ z in a cylindrical compression test. Note that...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... all of these aspects, which is primarily a result of the large deformations that are common in massive forming processes such as forging, extrusion, and rolling. For most common mechanical tests—simple tension and compression tests—the maximum uniform strains achieved are rather low because of necking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.9781627081764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... biaxial or plane stress. Then, a more fundamental parameter, the J -integral, is used. Almost all standard plane-strain fracture mechanics test specimens can be adapted to SCC testing. Several examples are shown schematically in Fig. 8 . ASTM Standard E 399 describes the allowable specimen...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... the fibers, and the shear modulus relative to the x 1 - x 2 plane, respectively. The major Poisson's ratio, as determined from contraction transverse to the fibers during a uniaxial test parallel to the fibers, is denoted by ν 12 . For laminates in which the macroscopic stress-strain relationships...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... mechanical properties of engineering plastics. The testing methods for determining mechanical properties, including stress-strain test, modulus-directed tensile test, strength test, strength-directed tensile test, impact test, and dynamic mechanical test are discussed. crystallinity engineering...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... detail. The identity of a crystalline phase, for example, can be easily determined in most cases by x-ray powder diffraction. Details of crystal perfection, lattice ordering, residual lattice strains, and so on require more detailed study by a wide variety of methods, such as Mössbauer spectroscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... composite materials, however, the separation of longitudinal and transverse waves is much more difficult. Composites are anisotropic media. The plane waves moving through the anisotropic media are often only quasi-longitudinal or quasi-transverse (containing both longitudinal and shear characteristics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... systems are observed. Although not favored by low temperatures, reorientation can occur on the prismatic plane. In addition to temperature, strain rate influences modes of deformation. Twinning is the favored mode of slip during high-velocity deformation. Of the three most common metal crystal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005421
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Fig. 2 correspond to a gamma titanium aluminide alloy tested in tension at a temperature of 1000 °C and a strain rate of 10 −4 s −1 . The slope of the fitted line equals η APP ( Ref 18 ). Simulations of cavity growth with continuous nucleation have led to the delineation of the difference between...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... transition from the fatigue-precrack region (below arrows) to the tension-overload plane-strain fracture region (above arrows). Specimen was aged 24 h at 120 °C (250 °F); tensile strength was 593 MPa (86 ksi), and uniform elongation was 13%. Note the appreciable number of vertical delaminations (as at A's...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000625
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... brought about by strain-induced grain-boundary migration and polygonization. Polygonization promotes brittle behavior by increasing the effective stress concentration at grain boundaries. Samples were isothermally annealed for 30 min and then tensile tested at room temperature. Fig. 1261 and 1262...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... here is typical of some plane-strain fracture surfaces in AISI 4340 steel. 2100× Fig. 417 TEM p-c replica of the fracture surface in Fig. 414 , showing a region at the bottom of a depression directly below the surface crack. In this entire area of projections and depressions (see Fig. 414...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... , Ref 10 ). Typical results for the effective strain developed in wedge forging are shown in Fig. 3 . Fig. 3 Finite-element-model predictions for the wedge-forging test, assuming a friction shear factor of 0.4. (a) Grid distortions. (b) Strain contours along the symmetry plane. Source: Ref 9...