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plane strain fracture toughness

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... macroscopically ductile when the fracture surfaces are oriented at an angle of approximately 45° to the maximum normal stress. A fracture surface displaying both types of planes can be described as a mixed-mode fracture. Fig. 14 Schematic of variation in fracture toughness and macroscale features of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... deformation finite-element modeling forgeability test fracture indentation test plane-strain compression test ring compression test strain strain rate stress tension test workability workability analysis workability tests WORKABILITY refers to the relative ease with which a metal can be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... various combinations of loading Modes I, II, and III, as well as the constant change in orientation of the local plane of fracture as the crack propagates, result in asymmetrical straining of the mating fracture surfaces. Figure 8 shows the effect of such asymmetry on dimple size. The surface (B) that...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is inaccurate. In application, consideration of the plane-strain state of stress is significant in understanding macroscale brittle fracture-surface orientation in tensile loading and the difference in fracture toughness for plane-stress and plane-strain loading (see the section “Fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... materials can have toughness levels that result in critical flaw sizes ( a c ) on the order of manufacturing and processing imperfections and even significantly smaller, as in quenched and tempered steels. The critical flaw size for macroscale (plane-strain) brittle fracture is: a = 2.5 ( K Ic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... flat (tensile mode) fatigue crack propagation to growth on a slant plane (shear mode). Propagation on a slant plane can occur in relatively thin, tough materials at high growth rates. Source: Ref 14 Fig. 13 Aluminum alloy fracture mechanics test specimen, 6.3 mm (0.25 in.) thick. Fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... decohesive separation along an active slip plane as well ( Ref 7 ). When the term decohesive rupture is used in relation to IG fracture, it appears to be a general term referring to any macroscopic brittle fracture that does not occur by dimple rupture, cleavage, or fatigue ( Ref 8 ). This broad use may...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... opened. In opening these types of cracks for examination, care must be exercised to prevent damage, primarily mechanical, to the fracture surface. This can usually be accomplished if opening is done such that the two faces of the fracture are moved in opposite directions, normal to the fracture plane...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... normal to the tensile axis. In mode II void growth, voids grow in sheets at an oblique angle to the crack plane under the influence of shear strains. This type of shear band tearing is found on the surface of the cone in a ductile cup-and-cone tensile fracture. It commonly occurs in deformation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... systems are observed. Although not favored by low temperatures, reorientation can occur on the prismatic plane. In addition to temperature, strain rate influences modes of deformation. Twinning is the favored mode of slip during high-velocity deformation. Of the three most common metal crystal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... HY steel compositions and programmed-cooling-rate thermal cycles for the base metal and weld wire. The vertical axis is a plot of a parameter derived from the specimen strength ratio in ASTM E 399, “Test Method for Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness of Metallic Materials”—i.e., 6 P max / B ( W − a...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article reviews the various types of mechanical testing methods, including hardness testing; tension testing; compression testing; dynamic fracture testing; fracture toughness testing; fatigue life testing; fatigue crack growth testing; and creep, stress-rupture, and stress...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract The design process for ceramic materials is more complex than that of metals because of low-strain tolerance, low fracture toughness and brittleness. The application of structural ceramics to engineering systems hinges on the functional benefits to be derived and is manifested in the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003995
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... products, plane strain can be assumed, leading to the following simplification of Eq 1 : (Eq 3) ε eq = 2 3 ln   ( H h ) where H is the roll pass entry thickness and h is the exit thickness. With regard to calculating strain rate in rolling, the strain rate is...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... lips and a central region of fibrous fracture. The −46 °C (−50 °F) fracture surface has a distinct chevron (or herringbone) pattern, which is produced by tear ridges running perpendicular to the crack front. The crack front is more advanced at the center of the plate (plane-strain condition) and lags...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in.) zones exhibiting ductile shear (see area between arrows in Fig. 16 ). Viewing the OD surface of the sleeve adjacent to the fracture plane revealed an extensive network of microcracks on the OD in the radius between the bulb and cylindrical portions ( Fig. 17 ). A cross section through one of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... analyzed only by such methods as x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Room-temperature age hardening (natural aging) is a result of spontaneous formation of Guinier-Preston (G-P) zone structure. Solute atoms either cluster or segregate to selected atomic lattice planes, depending on the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... hardening. However, fracture toughness and ductility are decreased. Incoherent precipitates generally do not add to the hardening process, because the strains around the precipitate have been erased. Creep strength and resistance are better with overaged equilibrium precipitates, because the incoherent...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... films or sheets, it is advantageous to stretch biaxially to increase tensile modulus and strength in all directions of the film plane. Tensile properties are usually measured at a constant rate of 0.5 cm/min (0.2 in./min). It is recommended by ASTM that the speed of testing be such that rupture occurs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... extremely fine, dispersed second-phase particles are: solution heat treatment, quenching, and age hardening. Finally, the article also discusses the process parameters of annealing, including the effect of strain, effect of temperature, effect of heating rate, and the effect of alloy elements, and the...