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planar grinding

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...Abstract Abstract This article reviews how process variations influence the characteristics of thermal spray coatings. It describes various specimen preparation techniques, which allow accurate microstructural analysis. These techniques include sectioning, cleaning, mounting, planar grinding...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... preparation using a multiple-specimen holder, the initial step is called planar grinding. This step must remove the damage from sectioning while establishing a common plane for all of the specimens in the holder, so that each specimen is affected equally in subsequent steps. Silicon carbide and alumina...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... embedding ( Ref 3 ). Fig. 9 Light micrograph showing a SiC grinding-abrasive particle (arrow) lodged in a weldment in 6061-T6 aluminum etched with aqueous 0.5% hydrofluoric acid For automated preparation using a multiple-specimen holder, the initial step is called planar grinding. This step...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... be performed on carefully prepared planar (two-dimensional) surfaces. This article discusses the preparation sequence of ferrous powders, which is normally separated into several well-defined steps: sample selection, sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing, drying, and chemical etching and/or coating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... to a common plane. This first step is often called planar grinding. Silicon carbide (SiC) paper of 120-grit particle size can be used for this step, although more than one sheet may be needed, and additional finer-grit SiC papers (240-, 320-, 400-, and 600-grit particle size, for example) would be required...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... the sectioning damage present on each specimen and bring all of the specimens in the holder to a common plane. This first step is often called planar grinding. Silicon carbide (SiC) paper has historically been used for this first step, although more than one sheet may be needed. If six 30 mm (1.25 in.) diameter...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Fig. 2 Phase analysis of an etched steatite ceramic sample Sample Preparation Microstructural analysis requires a deformation- and damage-free sample for correct characterization. A typical preparation procedure includes sectioning, mounting, planar grinding (coarse grinding), sample...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... techniques, namely mounting, grinding, polishing, and etching involved in the microstructural analysis of carbon and alloy steels, case hardening steels, cast iron, ferrous powder metallurgy alloys, wrought and cast stainless steels, tool materials, steel castings, iron-chromium-nickel heat-resistant casting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... particles to increase resistance to wear from abrasion, fretting, and erosion. Grinding is usually necessary for machining a fused coating because of the high hardness. Use of spray-and-fuse coatings is limited to substrate materials that can tolerate the 1010 to 1175 °C (1850 to 2150 °F) fusing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005747
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... material to be removed during the planar grinding stage; and comparable results with a range of preparation recipes. “Accepted Practices for Molybdenum Thermal Spray Coatings” recommends vacuum impregnation with a low-viscosity cold-mount epoxy and sufficient material removal during the planar grinding...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of other options are available to circumvent their use. One option, used chiefly with semi-automatic and automatic systems, is to grind a number of specimens placed in a holder simultaneously using a conventional grinding stone generally made of coarse grit alumina. This step, often called “planar grinding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...Abstract Abstract This article describes various procedures used in the metallographic preparation of niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten alloys. It provides information on sectioning, grinding, mounting, polishing, and electrolytic etching as well as alternate procedures that have been...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005729
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... Materials Grinding Rates Grinding Deformation Material Response to Various Grinding Parameters Polishing Concepts/Mechanisms Abrasives Polishing Cloths Polishing Lubricants Final Polishing Specimen Sectioning Cleaning Specimen Mounting Planar Grinding Intermediate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009076
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... ). These are custom made for the purpose of ultrathin-section development. The purpose of this type of vise is to increase the surface area that is in contact with the grinding/polishing surface and to provide a holder for the sample. This provides excellent control of the sample and planar surfaces after each step...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... or is in sufficient shape to prepare without a mount, it must be planar. Grinding takes place on a series of progressively finer silicon carbide grinding papers, usually 120-, 240-, 320-, 400-, and 600-grit papers. More details on grinding papers and the standard grit sizes are listed in Ref 5 . Finer-grit papers (1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... the effect of grinding on retained austenite in a dual-phase steel. The 25 by 50 mm (1 by 2 in.) specimen was planar polished for x-ray diffraction, using a new paper for each grinding step; it was then polished using 6 μm diamond. X-ray diffraction revealed the presence of 7.8% retained austenite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009072
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... grinding and polishing steps. The special mounting, grinding, and polishing techniques are discussed in detail in the article, “Special Sample Preparation and Polishing,” in this Volume. The first question to ask when analyzing a composite material with optical microscopy is what type of information...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... is recommended, because it produces less damage and yields a better surface finish, so that damaging, coarse abrasive grinding can be minimized or eliminated. Then, a somewhat finer abrasive, which generates less damage, can be used for the first step (often called planar grinding with automated, multispecimen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
..., surface-breaking cracks. This problem can arise when penetrants are used to chase fine hairline cracks or incomplete fusion with grinding. Magnetic Particle Testing Magnetic particle testing is the preferred method for detecting surface-breaking and, under certain circumstances, near-surface flaws...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... well in dust-free cabinets and the use of a desiccant is not necessary. Polishing schedule Table 2 Polishing schedule Step Surface Abrasive Lubricant Force, N Platen rpm Time, s Relative rotation (a) Planar grinding SiC paper 150 grit SiC Water 20–30 200...