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planar grinding

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... grind a number of specimens placed in a holder simultaneously using a conventional grinding stone generally made of coarse grit alumina. This step, often called “planar grinding,” has the second goal of making all of the specimen surfaces coplanar. This process requires a special-purpose machine because...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., namely mounting, grinding, polishing, and etching involved in the microstructural analysis of carbon and alloy steels, case hardening steels, cast iron, ferrous powder metallurgy alloys, wrought and cast stainless steels, tool materials, steel castings, iron-chromium-nickel heat-resistant casting alloys...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... glass products, including forming, grinding and polishing, and explores the advantages, disadvantages and steps involved in sol-gel process. It also discusses the types, processes and properties of annealed, laminated, and tempered glass, and presents the steps involved in glass decoration. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Microstructural analysis requires a deformation- and damage-free sample for correct characterization. A typical preparation procedure includes sectioning, mounting, planar grinding (coarse grinding), sample integrity (rough polishing), polishing, etching, and examination. Ideally a specimen is prepared in such a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... with tungsten carbide or chromium carbide particles to increase resistance to wear from abrasion, fretting, and erosion. Grinding is usually necessary for machining a fused coating because of the high hardness. Use of spray-and-fuse coatings is limited to substrate materials that can tolerate the 1010...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
...-dependent; Series 10, 15, or 20 (a) Planar grinding Adequate stock removal (minimal damage) Free Hard platen surface 15–45 μm High stock removal (increased damage) Fixed Bonded abrasive disks 40–125 μm Sample integrity Remove existing damage Semifixed Medium-to-soft platen surfaces or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003972
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... long dimension to produce individual parts having identical planar geometries. Complex, three-dimensional geometries, on the other hand, are formed individually by a series of forging and forging-extrusion operations in a sequence of one or more dies. Each deformation process, however, has...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in materials can be nondestructively measured by a variety of methods, including x-ray diffraction ( Ref 9 ), ultrasonics ( Ref 10 ), and electromagnetics ( Ref 11 , 12 ). With the x-ray diffraction technique, the interatomic planar distance is measured, and the corresponding stress is calculated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.9781627081719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... A · m −1 (1.6 Oe). Suitable alloys prepared in amorphous, noncrystalline form (metallic glasses) have the attractive combinations of high permeability and high volume resistivity. In the preferred planar-flow casting method of production, the metal is rapidly quenched from the melt onto cooled...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... which can be easily resolved in the taper section. Because of nonuniform polishing, the initially planar interface has become irregular in the taper section. This is almost impossible to avoid in practice. Fig. 4 Micrographs of a PVD titanium nitride coating on stainless steel. (a) Cross section...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... operation is complete so that the melt has arrived in the mold, internal turbulence subsides, and a period of quiescence follows. During this quiet period, the bifilm may experience a number f influences that encourage the bifilm to unravel, opening fold by fold until it forms a substantially planar...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... planar curves, by which the same apparent roughness and configuration are always observed regardless of the magnification ( Ref 11 ). This behavior has been found in only a few cases, such as the pathological Koch figures, whose boundaries can be increased without limit ( Ref 11 , 14 ). Fig. 1...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... flow, facilitating a planar solidification front move from the outside of the casting toward the axis of rotation. This method results in the production of high-quality, defect-free castings without shrinkage, which is the largest single cause of defective sand castings. Centrifugal casting is also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001298
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... τ xy τ xz τ yx σ y τ yz τ zx τ zy σ z ] = [ − 2653 ± 151 0 0 0 − 2819 ± 150 0 0 0 815 ± 140 ] The result shows that the planar stresses are equal biaxial...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005430
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., planar, and surface diffusion mechanisms are generally much faster than the lattice-diffusion-based-mechanisms and, as a result, are termed high-diffusivity paths (or short-circuit diffusivity). Depending on the temperature and/or microstructure of the material, these high-diffusivity paths or bulk...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... also useful for identifying flaws and defects in ceramics and glasses, as well as relatively planar fracture surfaces. However, it is limited in that many ceramic microstructures, particularly those of advanced ceramics, are either at or beneath the scale that an optical microscope can resolve...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... section of the testpiece contains a discontinuity that is essentially planar, such as a crack or cold shut, the planar discontinuity will be revealed only when the radiation is parallel or nearly parallel to that discontinuity ( Fig. 9a ). Such a discontinuity can be revealed as a difference in absorption...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.9781627081955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5