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planar defects

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...Abstract Abstract Chemical-mechanical planarization (CMP) of metals is described as mechanically accelerated corrosion, erosion corrosion, or metallic corrosion enhanced by wear. This article reviews the history, process, chemistry, electrochemistry, and defect issues for CMP. It provides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... of the term “defect.” A defect is a discontinuity that creates a substantial risk of failure in a component or structure during its service life. Although the aim of NDE is to detect defects, it provides evidence of flaws, as well. The significance of these flaws and whether or not they are actually defects...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... taken hold. This has been due to the need for rapid growth of planar technology in semiconductors and the availability of compatible data processing systems. In the mid-1960s, the discovery of channeling phenomena and recognition of ion implantation in material doping and alteration provided additional...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Faults As previously noted, another type of planar defect in a crystalline structure is a stacking fault. This type of internal surface defect is associated with the sequence of stacking in close-packed structures. For example, consider the stacking on a closest-packed plane (layer A illustrated...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... a substantially planar cracklike defect close to its original size when first entrained. This unfurling of the compacted defect is a critically important stage. This process defines the properties of many cast materials. In the simplest case, if freezing occurs quickly after the filling of the mold...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006637
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... Scattering techniques often are used in atomic and nuclear physics to check targets for impurities, thickness, and composition, but only since the late 1960s has ion beam analysis taken hold. This has been due to the need for rapid growth of planar technology in semiconductors and the availability...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... between the coil and the material (referred to as the lift-off distance). Fig. 3 Principle for inducing eddy currents in a conducting material. (a) Without defect. (b) With flaw One of the most important parameters in the eddy current method is the depth of penetration, δ, as defined...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...-off distance). Fig. 3 Principle for inducing eddy currents in a conducting material. (a) Without defect. (b) With flaw One of the most important parameters in the eddy-current method is the depth of penetration, δ, as defined by: (Eq 3) δ = 1 π f μ 0 μ r σ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... to quantify the structure/property effects of planar shock waves on ductile materials (metals and alloys) due to the wave propagation through the material. The techniques include explosive-driven shock-loading methods, shock-loading methods using exploding foil and laser-driven impactors, gas/powder launcher...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003258
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... workpiece or sheet metal can, of course, also influence material behavior (as discussed in subsequent sections). A common example is the formation of ears in deep-drawn cups due to the planar anisotropy of the sheet. Ductility Two traditional and common measures of ductility have been the tensile...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005736
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
..., planar microwave devices, waveguide devices, sensing devices, solid oxide fuel cells, heating elements, electrodes for capacitors and other electrochemical devices. capacitors dielectric breakdown heating elements photovoltaics resistors sensors solid oxide fuel cells thermal spray coating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...Abstract Abstract This article reviews how process variations influence the characteristics of thermal spray coatings. It describes various specimen preparation techniques, which allow accurate microstructural analysis. These techniques include sectioning, cleaning, mounting, planar grinding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003589
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the Schottky defect and the Frenkel defect in oxides. It provides information on the p-type metal-deficit oxides and n-type semiconductor oxides. The article discusses diffusion mechanisms and laws of diffusion proposed by Fick. It explains the oxide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001472
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... are interruptions in the desirable physical structure of a weld. A discontinuity constituting a danger to the fitness-for-service of a weld is a defect. By definition, a defect is a condition that must be removed or corrected ( Ref 1 ). The word “defect” should therefore be carefully used, because it implies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... grinding is used to remove all damage introduced during abrasive sectioning and provide a planar surface for further preparation. It may also be the means of locating a specific feature in a defect analysis, where the sample is ground to the location of a feature of interest. Subsequent grinding steps...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003577
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... as a function of time) are presented in detail. The oxide layers developed at high temperature are quite thick (up to several micrometers) compared to the layers formed at room temperature because of kinetic limitations associated with diffusion in the solid state. The diffusion mechanisms, in which defects...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... It provides information on the dimension-measurement applications of ultrasonic inspection methods. ultrasonic imaging inspection area-amplitude blocks distance-amplitude blocks calibration defects WHEN ULTRASONIC NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING (NDT) was first applied, it was a workmanship standard...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... bond formation. The resulting planar defect in the solder joint acts as a crack and significantly reduces the fatigue life of the joint. Surface contamination such as epoxy, heavy surface oxidation, unsuitable intermetallic compounds such as CuSn 3 , and skin oil can cause nonwetting. A negative...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... process during electropolishing is faster at the peaks than in the crevices. Unwanted selective etching, once a uniform surface is achieved, can be avoided by optimizing the electropolishing process conditions. Defects in Electropolishing Pitting can occur during electropolishing as a result...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003721
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...) structures. Crystal structures often found in metallic phases are described in the article “Crystal Structure” in this Section, and some texts apply the fundamentals of crystallography to metals ( Ref 26 , 27 ). Crystal imperfections include point defects, such as impurity atoms, vacancies and vacancy...