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pitting failure

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002375
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... presents the equations for determining surface durability and life of gears. It tabulates the situations and concepts of pitting failures in gears. The article analyzes some of the more common flaws that affect the life of gear teeth. It reviews the components in the design and structure of each gear...
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 37 Failure of a tube. (a) Pits. (b) Longitudinal crack. Source: Ref 15 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
...Abstract Abstract Mechanical tests are performed to evaluate the durability of gears under load. Gear tooth failures occur in two distinct regions, namely, the tooth flank and the root fillet. This article describes the common failure modes such as scoring, wear, and pitting, on tooth flanks...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Table 4 Main probability distributions observed in corrosion testing Probability distribution Corrosion phenomenon Normal Pitting potential Log normal Stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) failure time Poisson Two-dimensional distribution of pits Exponential Pit induction time SCC...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... or chemicals that can generate or decompose into ammonia. Hydrostatic testing procedures that permit water to become stagnant in the tubes can result in serious pitting and SCC. Failure to remove shop hydrostatic testing water that contained contaminants has caused tubing failures to occur before startup...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... biological material or chemicals that can generate or decompose into ammonia. Hydrostatic-testing procedures that permit water to become stagnant in the tubes can result in serious pitting and SCC. Failure to remove shop-hydrostatic-test water that contained contaminants has caused tubing failures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... pitting and manufacturing defects has become more important. This article presents case histories that are intended as an overview of the unique types of failures encountered in the freight railroad industry. The discussion covers failures of axle journals, bearings, wheels, couplers, rails and rail welds...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... modes, which together account for more than half the failures studied, are tooth-bending fatigue, tooth-bending impact, and abrasive tooth wear. Failure modes of gears Table 1 Failure modes of gears Failure mode Type of failure Fatigue Tooth bending, surface contact (pitting...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006358
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... of the gear unit—that is, the pitch diameter, gear ratio, and the face width—often must involve consideration of the Hertzian conditions necessary to avoid pitting failure of the gear face within the design life. Several types of pitting are recognized with regard to gear surface fatigue failures...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... examination revealed pitting corrosion on the inner surface of the spar cavity. Fig. 6 Fatigue cracking of a helicopter tail rotor blade. (a) Scanning electron micrograph of the blade showing lead wool ballast in contact with the 2014-T652 aluminum spar bore cavity wall at the failure origin ∼13×. (b...
Image
Published: 01 January 2005
originating from the inside of the bellows. Analysis showed iron-rich brown products with high chloride and sulfur content. The failures were attributed to pitting corrosion with extreme undercutting, probably resulting from changes in location of the hoses during storage and use. Bleach, used to deodorize More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... at the failure origin. Original magnification: ~13×. (b) Greater magnification (~63×) in this same area shows the multiple pits and associated corrosion products at the failure origin. The beach marks are seen emanating from the pits, typical of fatigue failure mode. Source: Ref 6 Conclusion The seal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... to 205 °C (250 to 400 °F). Thinned areas often have a scalloped or pitted appearance. Feedwater piping failures, such as that shown in Fig. 1 , can occur unexpectedly and close to work areas and walkways. To ensure continued integrity of boiler feedwater piping, it must be periodically inspected...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004128
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... as analysis of failed aircraft parts ( Ref 23 ) have demonstrated that pits are sites for fatigue crack initiation. Documented cases of fatigue cracks initiating from corrosion pits in 7 xxx series alloys have also shown that crack growth was promoted by the environment until failure of the components...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003706
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... crevice corrosion pitting corrosion damage tolerance crack growth crack initiation structural integrity CORROSION FATIGUE has been identified as a significant safety issue in the world aircraft fleets. The in-flight failure of a large section of fuselage on an Aloha Airline Boeing 737 in 1988...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... in surgical tools. The following examines some of the more common corrosion-induced medical device failure mechanisms. Pitting and Crevice Corrosion Pitting corrosion is characterized by localized attack that forms sharply defined holes. Metals that form passive oxide films, such as Nitinol, stainless...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
...Abstract Abstract Contact fatigue is a surface-pitting-type failure commonly found in ball or roller bearings. This article discusses the mechanisms of contact fatigue found in gears, cams, valves, rails, and gear couplings. It discusses the statistical analysis of rolling contact bearing-life...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... pitting and crevice corrosion to proceed. Massive failures due to pitting in water system components, such as utility condensers made of stainless steel, were identified as an MIC problem in the 1970s ( Ref 6 ). Corrosion damage was ascribed to metastable sulfur oxyanions produced by SRB...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and generally fewer L. discophora cells at the metal surface, but the distribution was uneven. The uneven distribution can be a factor in initiating localized pitting. This form of MIC has been identified in failure analysis reports for seawater pipelines ( Ref 48 ), paper mills ( Ref 49 ), and elsewhere...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... have imperfect alignment, and the gears slowly pit and “wear in,” after which the overall wear rate slows. (On larger teeth, the wear rate can be periodically monitored using a gear tooth caliper.) Failures are often the result of undetected wear, either due to inadequate lubrication or a lack of long...