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pitting failure

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Image
Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 5 Subsurface-initiated contact fatigue failure by (a) pitting and (b) spalling on a bearing raceway. Reprinted from Ref 16 with permission from Wiley More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002375
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... the equations for determining surface durability and life of gears. It tabulates the situations and concepts of pitting failures in gears. The article analyzes some of the more common flaws that affect the life of gear teeth. It reviews the components in the design and structure of each gear and/or gear train...
Image
Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 4 Pit-initiated in-service failure of a landing gear due to dynamic stresses. The collapse of the high-strength 300M steel main landing gear load barrel was due to severe all-around pitting. More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 10 Spring failure originating at a sharp-edged pitted area. Arrows indicate the location of the sharp-edged areas. 28× More
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 37 Failure of a tube. (a) Pits. (b) Longitudinal crack. Source: Ref 15 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... Abstract Mechanical tests are performed to evaluate the durability of gears under load. Gear tooth failures occur in two distinct regions, namely, the tooth flank and the root fillet. This article describes the common failure modes such as scoring, wear, and pitting, on tooth flanks. Failures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Table 4 Main probability distributions observed in corrosion testing Probability distribution Corrosion phenomenon Normal Pitting potential Log normal Stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) failure time Poisson Two-dimensional distribution of pits Exponential Pit induction time SCC...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 6 Fatigue cracking of a helicopter tail rotor blade. (a) Scanning electron micrograph of the blade showing lead wool ballast in contact with the 2014-T652 aluminum spar bore cavity wall at the failure origin ∼13×. (b) Greater magnification (∼63×) in this same area shows the multiple pits More
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
shows the multiple pits and associated corrosion products at the failure origin. The beach marks are seen emanating from the pits, typical of fatigue failure mode. Source: Ref 6 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... generate or decompose into ammonia. Hydrostatic testing procedures that permit water to become stagnant in the tubes can result in serious pitting and SCC. Failure to remove shop hydrostatic testing water that contained contaminants has caused tubing failures to occur before startup. The water used...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... biological material or chemicals that can generate or decompose into ammonia. Hydrostatic-testing procedures that permit water to become stagnant in the tubes can result in serious pitting and SCC. Failure to remove shop-hydrostatic-test water that contained contaminants has caused tubing failures...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006358
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... of the gear unit—that is, the pitch diameter, gear ratio, and the face width—often must involve consideration of the Hertzian conditions necessary to avoid pitting failure of the gear face within the design life. Several types of pitting are recognized with regard to gear surface fatigue failures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract Because of the tough engineering environment of the railroad industry, fatigue is a primary mode of failure. The increased competitiveness in the industry has led to increased loads, reducing the safety factor with respect to fatigue life. Therefore, the existence of corrosion pitting...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... modes, which together account for more than half the failures studied, are tooth-bending fatigue, tooth-bending impact, and abrasive tooth wear. Failure modes of gears Table 1 Failure modes of gears Failure mode Type of failure Fatigue Tooth bending, surface contact (pitting...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... examination revealed pitting corrosion on the inner surface of the spar cavity. Fig. 6 Fatigue cracking of a helicopter tail rotor blade. (a) Scanning electron micrograph of the blade showing lead wool ballast in contact with the 2014-T652 aluminum spar bore cavity wall at the failure origin ∼13×. (b...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... examination revealed pitting corrosion on the inner surface of the spar cavity. Fig. 6 Fatigue cracking of a helicopter tail rotor blade. (a) Scanning electron micrograph of the blade showing lead wool ballast in contact with the 2014-T652 aluminum spar bore cavity wall at the failure origin. Original...
Image
Published: 01 January 2005
originating from the inside of the bellows. Analysis showed iron-rich brown products with high chloride and sulfur content. The failures were attributed to pitting corrosion with extreme undercutting, probably resulting from changes in location of the hoses during storage and use. Bleach, used to deodorize More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... lay-up conditions. Further discussion of corrosion and failure mechanisms is provided in Ref 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 . One distinguishing feature of corrosion is its appearance. Metal loss may be uniform, so the surface appears smooth. Conversely, the surface may be gouged, scalloped, or pitted. Other...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004128
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... as analysis of failed aircraft parts ( Ref 23 ) have demonstrated that pits are sites for fatigue crack initiation. Documented cases of fatigue cracks initiating from corrosion pits in 7 xxx series alloys have also shown that crack growth was promoted by the environment until failure of the components...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003706
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... crevice corrosion pitting corrosion damage tolerance crack growth crack initiation structural integrity CORROSION FATIGUE has been identified as a significant safety issue in the world aircraft fleets. The in-flight failure of a large section of fuselage on an Aloha Airline Boeing 737 in 1988...