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pit stifling

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003612
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... In addition, the article provides a detailed discussion on the various stages of pitting. These include passive film breakdown, metastable pitting, pit growth, and pit stifling or death. pitting corrosion passive metals metal composition surface condition alloy composition corrosion inhibitors...
Book Chapter

By R.G. Kelly
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003613
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... corrosion stifling, and pitting relationships. It explains the crevice corrosion of stainless steel, nickel alloys, aluminum alloys, and titanium alloys with examples. The article reviews the types of testing methods that have been developed for differentiating and ranking the resistance of alloys toward...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003661
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... sufficiently in the electropositive direction, for example, due to the influence of oxidizing species such as O 2 , Fe 3+ , OCl − , and so on. At potentials more active or electronegative than the repassivation (protection) potential, pit initiation and growth are stifled. It should be noted that breakdown...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... from the surface as they form, which reduces their effectiveness in stifling further corrosion. Pitting Where pitting is a serious consideration, steels containing up to 3% Ni or 3% Cr may be used. Both nickel steels and chromium steels pit at about half the rate of carbon steel. For instance...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of thermophilic SRB in the severe intergranular pitting of 304L stainless steel condenser tubes in a geothermal electrical power plant operating at >100 °C (> 210 °F) has been reported ( Ref 16 ). In another example, microbiological activity and chloride concentrated under scale deposits were blamed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... properties, such as resistance to micrometer-sized pit formation and stabilization, were not degraded in both Al-Ni-Y and Al-Co-Ce alloys when the as-quenched structure was relaxed ( Ref 47 , 56 ). Mechanisms of Corrosion Resistance Many glassy metals exhibit extremely good corrosion resistance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003647
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... localized corrosion to significant reductions in corrosion rate ( Ref 1 ). Pitting, crevice corrosion, differential aeration cells, metal concentration cells, selective dealloying, enhanced erosion, and enhanced galvanic corrosion can result from MIC. Most MIC studies have focused on bacterial involvement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., nickel, aluminum, and their alloys, are susceptible to damage ( Ref 4 ). Titanium and its alloys appear to be generally resistant ( Ref 5 – 8 ), although modest pitting due to MIC has been demonstrated in the laboratory ( Ref 9 ). Viable microorganisms can be found over a wide range of temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... observed. Passivity is due to the formation of a surface film or protective barrier that is stable over a considerable range of oxidizing power and is eventually destroyed in strong oxidizing solutions. Under conditions in which the surface film is stable, the anodic reaction is stifled and the metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Applied potential E pit Pitting potential g Gaseous state Gr Graphite Gr E Graphite electrode with fiber ends exposed HP Hot pressed i Current density i corr Corrosion current density i galv Galvanic current density l Liquid state MMC Metal-matrix...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... , and/or H 2 S, and some can become thermally unstable and liberate corrosive species in situ. Particularly damaging in these situations is the fact that corrosion is likely to be localized leading to pitting, local area attack, crevice corrosion, and/or stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) ( Ref 15 ). Oxygen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... sites. Most of these products are relatively insoluble lead salts that are deposited on the lead surface as impervious films, which tend to stifle further attack. The formation of such insoluble protective films is responsible for the high resistance of lead to corrosion by sulfuric (H 2 SO 4 ), chromic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... direction indicates a stifling of corrosion through passivation or the formation of insoluble protective corrosion products. For example, newly laid insulated steel pipelines may have an average potential in excess of −0.8 V with respect to a copper/copper sulfate reference electrode, whereas old corroded...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... act to stifle further corrosion. In this sense, some CCCs are “self- healing.” The self-healing effect diminishes as CCCs dehydrate. As a result, the corrosion protection provided by stand-alone CCCs may decrease during exposure to ambient environments and elevated temperatures. Historical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., these systems cannot provide information on localized corrosion, such as pitting and stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). An algorithm for evaluating the suitability of the ER versus LPR probes is shown in Fig. 1 ( Ref 10 ). If the electrolyte is nonconductive, then ER is recommended over LPR. If the product...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... air into a chemical slurry in a reaction vessel; however, it experienced localized pitting corrosion even before the anticipated service ( Fig. 1 ). The damage occurred during storage, because the new (replacement) stainless steel pipe sections were in direct contact with mists of brackish water...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... and zinc coatings immersed in various types of waters, in different solutions in the neutral pH range, and in soils at different geographic locations in the United States. It concludes with information on the forms of corrosion encountered in zinc coatings, including galvanic corrosion, pitting corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
.... Apart from noble metals, such as gold and platinum, most metals react to form a corrosion product (e.g., oxides). If the corrosive substance is particularly aggressive, e.g., moderately concentrated sulphuric acid, then the metal surface becomes roughened with the formation of pits and cracks. Regions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... is mainly controlled by the availability of oxygen, sulfate, and sulfide in the groundwater. The failure time of the copper layer in the Swedish container has been modeled, and it is predicted that the failure, both by general and pitting corrosion, would be greater than 10 6 years under realistic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... film or protective barrier that is stable over a considerable range of oxidizing power and is eventually destroyed in strong oxidizing solutions. Under conditions in which the surface film is stable, the anodic reaction is stifled, and the metal surface is protected from corrosion. For example...