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pit growth

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003612
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... In addition, the article provides a detailed discussion on the various stages of pitting. These include passive film breakdown, metastable pitting, pit growth, and pit stifling or death. pitting corrosion passive metals metal composition surface condition alloy composition corrosion inhibitors...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004128
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... crack initiation and crack growth analysis. aircrafts corrosion corrosion fatigue exfoliation corrosion fatigue filiform corrosion fretting corrosion galvanic corrosion intergranular corrosion pitting corrosion stress-corrosion cracking surface roughness pit dimensions CORROSION...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004170
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... in uniform corrosion, galvanic corrosion, pitting corrosion, creep corrosion, dendrite growth, fretting, stress-corrosion cracking, and whisker growth. The article presents effective measures for minimizing the moisture retention in hermetic packages and/or moisture ingress in plastic packages. It concludes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003706
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... crevice corrosion pitting corrosion damage tolerance crack growth crack initiation structural integrity CORROSION FATIGUE has been identified as a significant safety issue in the world aircraft fleets. The in-flight failure of a large section of fuselage on an Aloha Airline Boeing 737 in 1988...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003633
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... cracklike characteristics. A model for stress-corrosion crack growth was developed from pits in brass tested in a non- tarnishing ammoniacal solution ( Ref 15 ). The researchers evaluated the corrosion and stress aspects of a pit to develop a model for crack initiation. They assumed that the corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... the sample functions of pit growth on metal surfaces ( Ref 28 ). The conclusions of that study were: Maximum pit depths were adequately characterized by extreme-value distribution. Corrosion rates for water injection systems could be modeled by a Gaussian distribution. An exponential pipeline...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003651
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... in obtaining data on the corrosion rate of a metal in soil, and this requires knowledge of mass loss and length of exposure. However, rate of pit growth may be the more important measurement if the material is to be used in construction of a fluid container or a pipeline. For some metals and alloys, stress...
Book Chapter

By Jerome Kruger
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003585
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... that metastable pitting events—breakdown-repair processes that occur below the critical potential for breakdown, E crit —may be involved in breakdown. One of these studies ( Ref 99 ) proposes a mechanism that describes the events of metastable pitting that lead to stable pit growth as follows: Anion (e.g...
Image
Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 15 On-line, real-time correlation between corrosion rate (left scale), pitting tendencies (right scale), and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) growth (dotted curve). Note: Annotations for short-term process information for H 2 S concentration and imposed aeration. Source: Ref 61 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... are often loose and, when dislodged, exhibit pits lined with bright metal corresponding to areas of anodic dissolution. Bacteria of this type can also use hydrogen by sulfate reduction: 4 H 2 + SO 4 2 − → S 2 − + 4 H 2 O The most commonly encountered SRB type...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003642
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... and the corresponding growth in discontinuity size plotted schematically on the ordinate. In a first model to estimate the number of fatigue cycles for a pit to reach the critical pit depth to nucleate a mode I crack, it was proposed that pit growth rate theory applied to data obtained with fatigue crack growth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
..., or other breaks in the oxide film. Once pitting initiates and reaches a stable size, growth occurs at an increasing rate as an autocatalytic process. Rapid metal dissolution in the pit creates excess metal and hydrogen ions. Thus, pitting corrosion can lead to hydrogen embrittlement in susceptible alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004130
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... is needed for all forms of life, and availability of water influences the distribution and growth of microorganisms. Water availability can be expressed as water activity (a w ) with values ranging from 0 to 1. Microbial growth has been documented over a range of water activities from 0.60 to 0.998...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of thermophilic SRB in the severe intergranular pitting of 304L stainless steel condenser tubes in a geothermal electrical power plant operating at >100 °C (> 210 °F) has been reported ( Ref 16 ). In another example, microbiological activity and chloride concentrated under scale deposits were blamed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... species promotes Griffith-type crack growth by reducing the surface energy. Localized preferential dissolution is unlikely in gaseous environments because development of local electrochemical cells requires the presence of an electrolyte. However, mechanisms have been developed for pitting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... ). To find the true causes of corrosion, it is essential to analyze the local temperature, pressure, chemistry, moisture velocity, and stress and material conditions. Pitting Pitting ( Ref 1 , 2 , 3 , 9 , 10 ) is often the initiating corrosion mechanism for SCC and CF. Pit growth seems to decrease...
Image
Published: 01 June 2012
. The surface has been etched and pitted by the body fluids such that any sign of fretting has been eliminated. (c) Low-magnification SEM of a Ti-6Al-4V/Ti-6Al-4V modular interface for a SROM modular total hip stem. The modular interface in this case is between the stem and the proximal shell, which is designed More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003586
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... interest to define these thresholds than it is to determine the rates in the regions where corrosion rates are high. Examples of the latter are pitting or crevice corrosion where passive films are broken down and local corrosion rates can be extremely high. This article addresses electrochemical methods...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003661
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... sufficiently in the electropositive direction, for example, due to the influence of oxidizing species such as O 2 , Fe 3+ , OCl − , and so on. At potentials more active or electronegative than the repassivation (protection) potential, pit initiation and growth are stifled. It should be noted that breakdown...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or by lowering the stress required to initiate fatigue) and can increase fatigue crack growth rates. Corrosion can contribute to fatigue crack initiation through the formation of pits, which then act as geometric stress raisers ( Fig. 28 ). Corrosion pitting evident on mating portions of a fatigue crack...