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Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 1(a) Flow diagram for blast furnace production of pig iron and steel More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... and limiting their concentration, often at very low levels, can significantly degrade casting performance. The primary source of these tramp elements is from the steel scrap, pig iron, and cast iron returns used as major charge materials for cast iron melting. Other trace elements are intentionally added...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... and the process is repeated. The iron tap hole may be opened more frequently if desired. Charge Materials Metallic Part of the Charge The metallic part of the charge is made up of foundry returns, pig iron and cast iron, and steel scrap. Gates, risers, and internally generated foundry scrap generally...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003174
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Addition of 0.05% reduces the amount of ferrite sometimes found adjacent to cored surfaces. Pig iron, steel scrap Bismuth ≤0.02 Promotes carbides and undesirable graphite forms that reduce tensile properties Deliberate addition, bismuth-containing molds and core coatings Boron ≤0.01 Promotes...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... are also described for compacted graphite irons and high-alloy irons. Fig. 2 Flow chart of cast iron processing with sand molding. (a) Annealing required for malleable irons. Adapted from Ref 2 Cast Iron Melting Practice Feedstock for cast irons includes a mix of pig iron, steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006329
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... (lump) –15 to 25 Spiegeleisen –15 to 25 Phosphorus Trace Ferrochromium (lump) –10 to 20 Nickel (shot or ingot) –2 to 5 Copper (b) –2 to 5 Alloys in briquets –5 to 10 Sulfur +40 to 60 (a) In pig iron or scrap. (b) As shot or scrap with minimum thickness of 4.8 mm...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006310
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... of the iron to be treated should be low (preferably <0.02%); this is readily achieved in an electric furnace by melting charges based on steel scrap or special-quality pig iron supplied for ductile iron production, together with ductile iron returned scrap. Low sulfur content can also be achieved...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... were made in electric induction furnace equipment since the 1950s. At their inception, induction furnaces required little or no pollution-control equipment because mostly clean, new scrap was charged. This mix of new scrap iron and pig iron yielded a low-sulfur iron that was satisfactory for the fast...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... to give desired properties. Iron is found in nature as iron ore, most of which is iron oxide. Metallic iron is produced by removal of oxygen from iron oxide. The most common process is to first reduce the ore in a blast furnace to an impure iron containing a high percentage of carbon, known as pig iron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006320
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... 233 B.C. Iron plowshares are cast. China Medieval Ages (5 to 15th century A.D.) ∼1122 Theophilus’s On Divers Arts , the first monograph on metalworking Germany 1313 Castings produced from furnace pig iron Germany ∼1500 The Basilicas, first famous cast iron gun England 1540...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006352
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... phenolic ester cold box HR relative hardness ppi pores per inch HPPI high-purity pig iron PSA pressure-sensitive adhesive HSDI heavy-section ductile iron PTSA P-toluol sulfonic acid I inertia PUCB phenolic urethane cold box IA image analysis PUNB phenolic urethane no bake IC initial condition PWHT postweld...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006340
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... 0.002 … Boron carbides resistant to annealing; segregates to intercellular regions; interacts with pearlite promoting effect of copper (limit: 0.0006%) Certain pig irons, some ferrosilicons, steel scrap, certain SiC grades, refractories Cadmium … … … … 0.002 Intercellular flake former...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... or by development of new nucleation sites. The factors influencing inoculation efficiency include: Charge materials (pig iron-steel scrap ratio, recarburizers, preconditioners) Melting furnace thermal regime Base iron chemical composition (silicon, manganese, sulfur)/iron residuals (aluminum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006332
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... electrode graphite, petroleum coke, and other sources. Pig iron is also used to carburize the melt and can be an additional source of silicon. Silicon and manganese are added as ferroalloys. Molybdenum is usually added as ferromolybdenum; however, with arc furnaces, molybdenum oxide briquettes may be used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005904
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... of steel scrap, pig iron, cast iron scrap, chips, and recycled material. The additives deployed are silicon carbide, coal, ferrosilicium, and other ferroalloys, such as ferromanganese and ferrochrome. The feed material has a considerable influence on the quality of the melt and thus on the usage properties...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... practices THE MODERN PRACTICE of iron and steelmaking can be summarized by referring to the simplified flow diagrams shown in Fig. 1(a) and 1(b) , which represent the sequence of steps for producing practically all steel products. Liquid iron, commonly referred to as pig iron, is produced in a blast...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
...) of primary aluminum by electrolysis, the energy required is on the order of 164 to 171 GJ ( Ref 33 ). This amount of energy is approximately ten times the energy needed to produce one tonne of pig iron in the blast furnace (from 16.8 to 18.8 GJ). Although the melting temperature of aluminum alloys is half...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., and recarburization and slag additions can be made if required. The recarburizers may be low- silicon, low-phosphorus pig iron, sorel pig iron, high-carbon steel, broken electrodes, petroleum coke, and so on, and occasional dipping of the carbon electrodes. The addition of carbon gives a carbon boil: O = CO...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... include aluminum, copper, and lead. The iron is in the form of pig iron, cast iron, steel, ductile iron, or galvanized iron. Modern water utilities favor the use of ductile iron (usually lined internally) for water mains. The metal of choice for bringing water from the main to the consumer tends...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... the sensitivity of the ADI to section size and nodule count, it is advisable to restrict the manganese level in ADI to less than 0.3%. The use of high-purity pig iron in the ADI charge offers the twin advantages of diluting the manganese in the steel scrap to desirable levels and controlling undesirable trace...