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piercing shear

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article discusses the operating principles, types, and applications of shearing and slitting of different forms of steel, including plates, flat sheets, bars, coiled sheet and strips. In addition, it provides a detailed account of the cutting methods such as oxyfuel gas cutting...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... above (a) P/M tool steels A brief review of tool materials for various forming operations is given below. More detailed information on selection of tool and die materials for press forming, deep drawing, spinning, shearing, and slitting, as well as other forming processes, can be found in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004040
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... the process is termed piercing. However, when the volume of metal displaced by the punch is equal to or greater than the total volume, metal flow occurs by large shear, in which one cross-sectional area is changed into a different cross-sectional area. This process is reverse extrusion. Several...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... alloys, and alloy 400, are frequently used in 1 8 hard and 1 4 hard tempers for improved shearing and piercing. For similar reasons, alloy 400 is usually cold headed in No. 1 or 0 temper for fastener applications. Nickel-base alloys do not require special equipment for cold...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003980
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... complete the upset, and if flash removal (trimming) is a part of the forging operation, another pass is added. Piercing and shearing passes can also be incorporated into the dies. In single-blow solid-die machines, the gripper dies are replaced by a shear arm and a shear blade. A long, heated bar of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... deformation. Shear bands may span the entire cross section of a forging and, in extreme cases, produce shear cracking. Flow localization can arise from constrained deformation due to die chill or high friction. However, flow localization can also occur in the absence of these effects if the metal undergoes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... conditions under which flow-localization-controlled failures occur. These failures are manifested by shear bands or regions of localized shear deformation because torsion imposes a mode of simple shear ( Fig. 2 ). During torsion, shear bands may originate at a point of material inhomogeneity or temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.9781627081863
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... transfer headers. Most cold-heading machines used in high production are fed by coiled wire stock. In the conventional method, stock is fed into the machine by feed rolls and passes through a stationary cutoff quill. In front of the quill is a shear-and-transfer mechanism. When the wire passes through...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.9781627081979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
Book Chapter

By Robert Bolin
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003982
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... presses. A low-alloy steel such as ASM 6F2 at 38 to 43 HRC (350 to 400 HB) may be necessary to withstand the higher tool working temperature. Figures 30(c) and (d) show the type of piercing punch and support ring that would be used on a two- or three-station blanking press to shear out the slug...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... folds were developing ( Ref 19 ). Fig. 30 Arrows highlight the defects observed after forming the electrode. The actual part underwent a total of five operations to form the finished electrode: shearing, squareup, preform, backward extrusion, and final forming ( Fig. 31 ). The sheared...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.9781627081764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., can be established only under the supposition that the crystal does not yield first. The yield stress is the stress level where dislocations are forced to move and to produce a plastic shear strain by slip of lattice planes in certain lattice directions. The yield strength of a material depends on...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.9781627081610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... electrical heating elements to maintain the proper container temperature Piercing units and mandrel manipulators for the extrusion of tubes and hollow parts Internal or external billet loaders Cutoff shears and/or butt knockers for separating the butt from the die face/die entrance Mechanized...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... 600 (90) 575 (85) 4 (0.60) 5 (0.75)  Compression 285 (40) 380 (55) 25 (4) 50 (7.5)  Bend 1250–1600 (180–230) 825–1000 (120–145) 20 (3) 30 (4.5)  Shear 20 (3) 28 (4) … … Fracture toughness, kJ/m 2 (ft · lbf/ft 2 ) 70 (4800) 20 (1370) 0.4 (30) 0.8 (55) HTU, high...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... or more of the punches ( Fig. 9 ). Fig. 9 Examples of multiple-ram forgings. Displacement of metal can take place from vertical, horizontal, and combined vertical and horizontal planes. Dimensions given in inches. Piercing holes in a forging at an angle to the normal direction of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006258
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... approximately 45 GPa (6525 ksi). The shear modulus is approximately 17 GPa (2465 ksi), and Poisson’s ratio is 0.35. Magnesium alloy products made by sand or permanent mold casting are common, and there are a large variety of sizes or shapes for different applications. In the wrought form, they can be obtained...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... value around 1 MHz or below by the detection interferometer. Generation mechanism generally does not allow selection of a wave type: longitudinal, shear, and surface waves (or plate waves) generally are all emitted at the same time, which is a benefit or a drawback, depending on the application...