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physical vapor deposition

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Physical vapor deposition (PVD) coatings are harder than any metal and are used in applications that cannot tolerate even microscopic wear losses. This article describes the three most common PVD processes: thermal evaporation, sputtering, and ion plating. It also discusses ion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... postdeposition changes. It also discusses the effects and causes of growth-related properties of films deposited by physical vapor deposition processes, including residual film stress, density, and adhesion. adhesion atomistic film growth atomistically deposited films composite materials condensation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) refers to the process wherein evaporated atoms produced by physical vapor deposition are simultaneously struck by an independently generated flux of ions. This article discusses the energy utilization of this process. It describes the physical and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... are atomistic in nature, that is, the deposition species are atoms or molecules, or a combination thereof. Other vapor-transport processes include the physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques, such as vacuum, evaporation, sputtering, ion plating, ion-beam assist, arc, and ion implantation, which are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001284
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... materials will be discussed in detail, because they are primarily used in optoelectronic and high-frequency device applications. Table 2 Physical properties of selected metal-organic materials used in metal-organic chemical vapor deposition Compound Formula Abbreviation Melting point Boiling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article discusses the application of amorphous and crystalline films through plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) from the view point of microelectronic device fabrication. It describes the various types of PECVD reactors and deposition techniques. Plasma enhancement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001320
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... information on the applicable methods for surface engineering of cutting tools, namely, chemical vapor deposited (CVD) coatings, physical vapor deposited coatings, plasma-assisted CVD coatings, diamond coatings, and ion implantation. builtup edge carbides ceramics cermets chemical vapor deposited...
Book Chapter

By Donald M. Mattox
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article begins with a list of the factors that influence the properties of physical vapor deposited films. It describes the steps involved in ion plating, namely, surface preparation, nucleation, interface formation, and film growth. The article discusses the factors influencing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... oxidation resistance through the use of polishing, buffing, and wire brushing operations. The article also covers a wide range of surface modification and coating processes, including ion implantation, diffusion, chemical and physical vapor deposition, plating, anodizing, and chemical conversion coatings as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... condensation thermal vaporization vacuum deposition VACUUM DEPOSITION, or vacuum evaporation, is a physical vapor deposition process in which the atoms or molecules from a vaporization source reach the substrate without colliding with residual gas molecules. Generally, the vaporization source is one that...
Book Chapter

By S.L. Rohde
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001288
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... position among the competing deposition techniques. The environmentally friendly nature of sputtering processes should also make them increasingly attractive in the future. SPUTTERING is a nonthermal vaporization process in which surface atoms are physically ejected from a surface by momentum transfer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... cost of vapor degreasing equipment is not justified Cleaning electrical or electronic assemblies in which the presence of inorganic salt deposits may cause current leakage Virtually all common industrial metals can be cleaned in the commonly used cleaning grade solvents without harm to the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... superconductors and ferroelectric materials. angular distribution ferroelectric materials high-temperature superconductors particulates pulsed-laser deposition pulsed-laser deposition equipment PULSED-LASER DEPOSITION (PLD) is a physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique that has gained popularity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001291
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... refractory metals, such as chemical vapor deposition. All types of vacuum arc deposition processes share the same potential for making commercially valuable coatings. However, cold cathode sources produce macroparticles that may need to be removed in certain applications. Although hot sources avoid the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... deposited by electron-beam physical vapor deposition techniques can have low thermal mismatch stresses upon cooling. However, such a coating must then be able to withstand extremely high compressive stresses upon heating. In previously reported work ( Ref 47 ), it has been shown that iridium-base coatings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... applicable to coatings produced by other processes. The microstructure of a coating is critically dependent on the deposition technology used to produce it ( Ref 1 ). In some technologies, such as physical vapor deposition (PVD), the structure of the coating can be controlled to a certain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., hot-dip coating processes, electrogalvanizing, electroplating, metal cladding, organic coatings, zinc-rich coatings, porcelain enameling, thermal spraying, hardfacing, vapor-deposited coatings, surface modification, and surface hardening via heat treatment. alloy steel cadmium plating carbon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001280
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... flame spraying, plasma-arc flame spraying, detonation gun spraying, pack cementation, fluidized-bed deposition, vapor streaming, troweling, and electrophoresis. The article also includes information on the evaluation of the quality of ceramic coatings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... compounds from magnetic particle and fluorescent penetrant inspection. The cleaning processes include emulsion cleaning, electrolytic alkaline cleaning, acid cleaning, solvent cleaning, vapor degreasing, alkaline cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, and glass bead cleaning. The article provides guidelines for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... provides an overview of the various types of stainless steels and describes the commonly used cleaning methods, namely, alkaline cleaning, emulsion cleaning, solvent cleaning, vapor degreasing, ultrasonic cleaning, and acid cleaning. Finishing operations of stainless steels, such as grinding, polishing...